John – the Eyewitness Gospel


P45 John 10:7-25

Gospel of John is widely believed to be an eyewitness account written independently of the Synoptic Gospels. Identifying himself as a Disciple, the list of possibilities for authorship is thus limited to the eleven Disciples.[1]

Possibilities can then be narrowed to the inner circle of Jesus – Peter, James and John. They were the only three Disciples chosen by Jesus to be with him during the Transfiguration and his final prayer on the Mount of Olives.[2]

James was executed decades before John’s Gospel was written excluding him as a possibility.[3] Peter can be ruled out because he is identified as the one who motioned to the Disciple author who was leaning on the chest of Jesus to ask for more details about the betrayer among them. By deduction, John is the Disciple author of the Gospel.[4]

P52 c. 125–150 AD

Oldest of the fragments of the Gospel of John are dated to as early as 125 AD, possibly from the original manuscript text.[5] John’s account is believed to have been written when John was in his 90s, a few short years before he died in approximately 100 AD.[6]

Some assert that the Disciple John, aka Apostle John, was not the actual author, rather someone else wrote it for him.[7] If indeed that is the case, advanced age may have required someone else to write the words on his behalf. Nonetheless, written or dictated, the account reflects intimate knowledge of someone who was there.

Like the other three Gospels, the author does not specifically identify himself. One reason for no authorship can be attributed to the Jewish literary protocol of that era not to pen a name to literary works.[8]

To draw a conclusion on authenticity, it must be drawn based on the evidence within the Gospel. A credible eyewitness statement is expected to begin when the witness becomes engaged in the event; typically written chronologically as memory recall dictates; makes references to specific dates and times, locations and names; and may include quotes.[9]

One of the most obvious examples that the author was there is the description of the Resurrection morning events. After a pretext setting, his description begins at the point when Mary Magdalene and other women burst into the room telling John and Peter what they had seen and heard at the empty tomb — the account begins when the author became personally involved.[10]

Ending the Gospel is a another personal situation after breakfast on the Sea of Tiberias shore with the resurrected Jesus. A conversation is described that the author overheard between Jesus and Peter.[11]

Compared to the parallel Jewish writing style of Matthew, Mark and Luke, naturally there are going to be chronological timeline variations.[12] Chronologically written, the Gospel marks the sequence of events using the annual Feasts in Jerusalem.[13]

Time frames covering three years are clearly defined beginning with the first year of ministry by Jesus when John writes “the Passover of the Jews was near.”[14] Next, marking the the second year midpoint, “Now the Passover, the festival of the Jews, was near.”[15]

Lastly, the Gospel account moves into the third and final year with “Now it was the Preparation Day of the Passover.”[16] Times of day, in some instances the very hour, are pinpointed in the Gospel.[17]

Locations details are so frequent, it is easy to map the journey of Jesus throughout his ministry. Obscure locations are named, “Aenon near Salim” and a “Samaritan town called Sychar” as well as places near Jerusalem, “the Kidron Valley” and the “Mount of Olives.”[18]

Precise locations within Jerusalem are identified, the “Sheep Gate a pool called Bethzatha in Aramaic, which has five covered walkways;“ “‘The Stone Pavement’ (Gabbatha in Aramaic)” and “the Roman governor’s residence” of Pilate.[19]

“Cana in Galilee” is named three times, first where Jesus turned water to wine and is later identified as the hometown of Disciple Nathanael.[20] Bethany is cited as the hometown of the siblings Mary, Martha and Lazarus as well as a place where John the Baptist performed baptisms.[21]

Personal names are many offering yet another validation to the identify of the Gospel’s author. The author referred to  “John the Baptist” only as “John” – there was no need to distinguish between another “John.”[22]

Some Disciples were identified as Andrew, Simon Peter, Philip, Nathanael, Thomas and ”Judas (not Judas Iscariot).”[23] Named also are two Pharisee members of the ruling Jewish council Nicodemus and Joseph of Arimathea; adversaries Caiaphas, Annas, and Pilate; and other followers of Jesus, Mary the wife of Clopas, Mary Magdalene and the siblings Mary, Martha and Lazarus.[24]

Quotes appear throughout the account; Nicodemus said, “you are a teacher who has come from God.”[25] Martha said to Jesus of her brother, Lazarus, “I know that whatever you ask from God, God will grant you.”[26] Mary Magdalene’s errant exclamation to Peter and John, “They have taken the Lord from the tomb, and we don’t know where they have put him!”[27]

Doubting Disciple Thomas said, “Unless I see the wounds from the nails in his hands, and put my finger into the wounds from the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will never believe it!” Days later, his excited utterance is quoted upon seeing and touching the resurrected Jesus, “My Lord and my God!”[28]

Disciple Peter said “I will lay down my life for you!”[29]  The author himself writes of his encounter with the resurrected Jesus at the Sea of Galilee with another excited utterance, “It is the Lord!”[30]

Providing other very specific details strongly suggest the author observed these things himself. Miraculously changing the water to wine, not just a small jug of water, rather “six stone waterpots…containing twenty or thirty gallons each.”[31]

“Mary took a pound of very costly oil of spikenard” and anointed the feet of Jesus.[32] Critics who were present asked, “Why was this fragrant oil not sold for three hundred denarii and given to the poor?”[33]

After Judas exited the Passover meal, the Last Supper, four chapters describe teaching and admonitions of Jesus that are unique. Jesus foretells of Peter denying him three times before the cock crows that next morning; the coming of the Holy Spirit; the vine and the branches, and prayers for his Disciples and believers.[34]

On the Mount of Olives, “Simon Peter then, having a sword, drew it and struck the high priest’s slave, and cut off his right ear; and the slave’s name was Malchus.” Not just an ear, it was the right ear of a slave with a name, Malchus.[35]

Describing the crucifixion, “bearing His cross, went out to a place called the Place of a Skull, which is called in Hebrew, Golgotha, where they crucified Him, and two others with Him, one on either side, and Jesus in the center.”[36] Crucifixion witnesses were identified as the mother of Jesus (Mary), her sister (Salome, mother of John), Mary the wife of Clopas, Mary Magdalene and the Disciple author himself.[37]

“One of the soldiers pierced His side with a spear, and immediately blood and water came out,” is recorded by the author. According to medical experts, it is an indication of death corroborating the conclusion that Jesus died.[38]

Writing “Jesus did many other signs in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book.”[39] In-spite-of the author’s disclaimer, some critics use the omission of events as evidence to challenge the credibility of John’s Gospel because they do not appear in one or more of the three Synoptic Gospels accounts of Matthew, Mark and Luke.[40]

Towards the end of the Gospel finalizing his account of the three year ministry of Jesus of Nazareth, the author wrote:

“…he who has seen has testified, and his testimony is true; and he knows that he is telling the truth, so that you may believe.”[41]

Is the Gospel of John an eyewitness account?


Updated December 5, 2023.

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[1] “Gospel of John.” Encyclopedia of biblical Christianity.  n.d. <>  “The Book of John.” Quartz Hill School of Theology. n.d.  <>  Smith, Barry D. “The Gospel of John.” Crandall University. n.d. <> “Crucifixion.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <>
[2] Matthew 17:1; 26:36; Mark 1:29; 5:37; 9:2; 14:33; Luke 8:51; 9:28; 22:8; John 13:23-25.
[3] Acts. 12:2. “St. James.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2020. <>
[4] John 13:23-25; 21:20.
[5] Rylands, John. “P52: A Fragment of the Gospel of John (a.k.a. John Rylands P457).” Trans. K. C. Hanson. photo. 2004. <> Kenyon, Frederic G. The Chester Beatty Biblical Papri Descriptions and Text of Twelve Manuscripts On Papyrus of the Greek Bible. p 40, John X, 31-XI, lO. photo. 1934. <>
[6] Quartz Hill School of Theology. “Gospel of John.” “Gospel of John Commentary: Who Wrote the Gospel of John and How Historical Is It?” Biblical Archeology Society. 2019.
[7] “St. John the Apostle.” Catholic News Agency. n.d. <> “John the Apostle.” TheFamousPeople. n.d. <> “Gospel of John.”
[8] Hoffe , Peter Charles.  “Plagiarism.” University of Massachusetts  Amherst. 2013. <>
[9] Sapir Avinoam.  LSI Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation. <>
[10] John 20:2-10.
[11] John 20:1-9; 21:20-23.
[12] Smith, Ben C. “Gospel manuscripts – The manuscripts extant for the four canonical gospels.” 2018. <> “Synoptic Gospels.” Gloag, Paton J. Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels. pp 5, 9, 23-38. 1895. <> “The Book of Matthew.” Quartz Hill School of Theology. Mareghni, Pamela.  “Different Approaches to Literary Criticism.” 2014. <>  “Gospel of John.”
[13] Fonck, Leopold. “Gospel of St. John.” The Catholic Encyclopedia.Vol. 8. 1910. New Advent. 2014.  <>  “The Book of John.” Quartz Hill School of Theology.  Smith, Barry D. “The Gospel of John.”
[14] John 2:13. NASB, NRSV.  CR John 4:45.
[15] John 6:4. NASB, NRSV.
[16] John 19:14. NASB, NKJV.
[17] John 1:39; 6:16, 17; 19:14, 31, 42: 20:1, 19.
[18] John 3:23; 4:5. 8:1; 18:1. NET.
[19] John 5:2; 18:28; 19:13. NET.
[20] John 4:43-46; 5:2.
[21] John 1:28; 11:1, 17, 18; 12:1, 9.
[22] John 1:19, 28; 3:24; 5:33; 10:41.
[23] John 1:40, 42-45; 6:8; 11:14; 14:22; 20:24; 21:2.
[24] John 3:1; 11:1, 49; 18:10, 13-14, 28, 33, 38; 19:25, 38; 20:1.
[25] John 3:1.
[26] John 11:21.
[27] John 20:22.
[28] John 20:25, 28. NET.
[29] John 13:37.
[30] John 21:7.
[31] John 2:6. NASB.
[32] John 12:3. NKJV.
[33] John 12:5. NKJV.
[34] John 13:38; 14:26; 15; 16; 17.
[35] John 18:10. NASB.
[36] John 19:16-18. NJKV.
[37] John 19:27. NKJV.  CR Matthew 27:36.
[38] John 19:30. NASB, NKJV. “A doctor on why “blood and water” gushed from Jesus’ heart.” 2019. <>  Treloar, Adrian. “The Medicine of the Crucifixion.” Catholic Medical Quarterly. 2011. <>
[39] John 20:30; 21:25. NASB, NKJV.
[40] Smith, B. D. “The Gospel of John.” F. 5.3.
[41] John 19:35. NKJV.

Isaac – the Odyssey Life


Isaac’s odyssey life was much like that of legendary movie figure Forrest Gump – Isaac was part of several Biblical historical events, but not the focus of the stories. Still, he is mentioned in the middle of the common Scriptural phrase, “the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.”[1]

Abraham, the father of Isaac, is the patriarch of Judaism, Islam and Christianity having been blessed by God to be the father of many nations and kings.[2] Jacob, Isaac’s son, had his name changed by God to Israel and became the father of the 12 tribes of Israel.[3] Isaac’s life fell between these two iconic Biblical figures without the same high profile recognition.

Sarai, Abram’s Hebrew wife, came to think she was barren and suggested that Abram use their servant Hagar, an Egyptian, to produce a baby. Abram married Hagar and they had a child whom they named Ishmael according to a message from an angel.

Animosity with Hagar compelled Sarah to press Abraham to remove Hagar and Ishmael, from the picture. Although he loved Ishmael very much, Abraham blessed him and sent him away with Hagar.[4] Ismael went on to become the patriarch of the Muslim world.[5]

Thirteen years after Ishmael was born, God appeared to Abraham with an amazing message.[6] Not only was Abraham promised to be the father of nations and kings, God changed the names of both him and his wife – Abram to Abraham and Sarah and Sarai – and promised they would miraculously become parents of a boy in their old age, a son whom God named Isaac.[7] At the age of 90 Sarah gave birth to Isaac, her only child, when Abraham was 99 years old.[8]

Ipex goat, Negev Desert

Abraham’s faith was tested by God placing Isaac’s life at great risk as a youth. Unbeknownst to Isaac, God commanded Abraham to sacrifice his only son on a Moriah mount. Human sacrifices were not uncommon in that era, such as to the pagan gods Baal and Moloch.[9]

Carrying the wood for the sacrifice, Isaac suspected something wasn’t right and pointed it out to his father – they didn’t have an animal to sacrifice.[10] “God will provide for Himself the lamb for the burnt offering,” Abraham told Isaac.[11]

Drama peaked at the final moment when Isaac was ready to be slain on the sacrificial alter. An “angel” stopped Abraham from killing his only son and instead provided a ram entangled in a nearby thicket for the substitute sacrifice.[12] Known in Judaism as “The Binding of Isaac,” the event is also mentioned in the New Testament Book of Hebrews as an example of faith.[13]

Mount Moriah from that point forward would become the centerpoint location of holiness to God. Hundreds of years later, King David would purchase the land, personally offer a sacrifice, then announced that very place on Mount Moriah would be the location of the Temple eventually built by King David’s son, Solomon.[14]

Isaac’s marriage to Rebekah was much less of a remarkable occasion than the significant events preceding and surrounding it. The multifaceted story involved the miraculous revelation of a bride for Isaac; established a traditional Jewish marriage right; and emphasized God’s value of virginity.

At the age of marriage, Abraham sent his servant back in his homeland with instructions to find a bride for Isaac among “the daughters of the Canaanites.[15] The servant prayed for a specific sign so complex and unusual, when it happened it would leave no doubt Rebekah was the chosen one for Isaac.

Rebekah was the first of only three females in the Bible described by the rare Hebrew words, ha-almah, “the virgin.” The Genesis story serves as the codex for defining the Hebrew word meanings for ha-almah (the virgin), betulah (virgin), na ‘arah (girl) and `ishshah (woman).[16] Second of the appearance of ha-almah in the Bible was in reference to Miriam, the sister and savior of Moses and the third time is the prophecy of Isaiah 7:14 foretelling the birth of a son to ha-almah.[17]

To escape a famine, Isaac moved his family to Philistine territory. Rebekah was very beautiful, so much so, that Isaac feared someone might kill him to steal his wife. As a safeguard, the couple lived under the pretense that Rebekah was his sister.[18] While in the land of the Philistines, God appeared to Isaac warning him not to go to Egypt, then blessed him: [19]

Gen 26:3-5 “Dwell in this land, and I will be with you and bless you; for to you and your descendants I give all these lands, and I will perform the oath which I swore to Abraham your father. And I will make your descendants multiply as the stars of heaven; I will give to your descendants all these lands; and in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed; because Abraham obeyed My voice and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws.”(NKJV)

One day Philistine King Abimelech saw Isaac caressing Rebekah and realized that she was married to Isaac. After confronting Isaac for his deception, Isaac expressed his fear that someone might kill him to steal his wife. In response, the King issued a command that no one was to touch the couple under the penalty of death.[20]

Prayers of Isaac and Rebekah to give them children after 20 years of marriage were answered with the birth of paternal twins, Esau the older and Jacob the younger.[21] Not only was their appearance vastly different, so was their personality and interests. The twins were a handful for their parents even in their sons’ adult years and the repercussions would manifest themselves many years later.

In his old age, Isaac announced to Esau the time had come for his firstborn blessing and sent him on a hunting trip to get meat for the occasion. Rebekah overheard the conversation and quickly went to Jacob with a plan to swindle the blessing from Isaac. Skeptical at first, Jacob went along with the plan where he used sheep skin to fool his blind father who felt and smelled the imposter pelt believing the earthy scent to be that of Esau.[22]

Having received the blessing of God given to his father Abraham where “all the nations of the earth shall be blessed,” Isaac unwittingly blessed Jacob instead of Esau. In doing so, Isaac passed along God’s blessings of his father to Jacob. Esau soon returned from hunting and became enraged when he learned what had happened and wanted to kill his twin brother, but Rebekah had tipped off Jacob who fled the country.

After the account of Isaac’s blessing, the next 7 chapters in Genesis focuses on the life of Jacob. Briefly mentioning the end of Isaac’s life, Genesis records that Isaac lived a full life until the ripe old age of 180 years.[23] Isaac and Ishmael would meet again when they buried their father thus bringing to an end the odyssey life of Isaac.[24]

Could any Messiah prophesy to Abraham legitimately be fulfilled without the blessed life of Isaac?


Updated August 29, 2023.

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[1] Word search for “Abraham, Isaac, Jacob.” 2020. <>
[2] Genesis 17:5-8.
[3] Genesis 32 :28, 35 :10.  Qur’an Surah 3:84, 4:163, 12:38,19:58, 38:45. Pratt, John P.  “Divine Calendars Testify of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.” 2003. <>
[4] Genesis 17-18, 21.
[5] Genesis 17-18.
[6] Genesis 21:1-8.
[7] Genesis 21:8-20.
[8] Qur’an Surah 2:127-128, 133.
[9] “Human Sacrifices.” n.d. <>  Hefner, Alan G. “Baal.”  Encyclopedia Mythica. 2004. <>  “Sacrifice.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <>
[10] Genesis 22:7.
[12] Hebrews 11:17-19. “The Binding of Isaac.” 2020. <>
[13] Shuchat, Chaya. Smithsonian Magazine. “Ibex Mountain Goat seen while touring the Negev Desert in Israel.” Aug. 2015. <>
[14] I Chronicles 21:18, 2 Chronicles 3:1, 2 Samuel 24:15-25.
[15] Genesis 24:7-8, 57-58.
[16] Genesis 24:16-44.
[17] Exodus 2:8.
[18] Genesis 25:21, 27, 29-34;
[19] Genesis 26:1-7.
[20] Genesis 26:8-10.
[21] CR Genesis 17:21, 25:11, 26:3-5, 24, 35:12; 1 Chronicles 16:16.
[22] Genesis 27. CR Genesis 35:10, 16-20, 48:7.  “The Story of Abraham.” The History of Israel. n.d. <>  Pratt. “Divine Calendars Testify of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.”
[23] Genesis 35:28.
[24] Genesis 25:9.

John the Baptist – Confirmation of the Gospels?


John the Baptist is recognized as a real historical figure by fierce religion opponents of Christianity as well as a Roman Jewish historian. The Gospels feature John the Baptist as a prominent figure in the life of Jesus of Nazareth, too. Does the existence of John the Baptist lend credibility to the Gospel accounts?

John, the eyewitness Gospel, recognizes John the Baptist as the one who testified about the Light whom he identified as Jesus Christ.[1] Mark begins its Gospel immediately by declaring Jesus to be the Son of God, then declares John the Baptist fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 40:3 preparing the way for the LORD.[2]

“John the Baptist Preaching” by Giambattista Fontana, 16th Century.

Priests and Levites questioned John the Baptist about his true identity, but John denied he is the Messiah. Referencing the prophecy of Isaiah 40:3, the Baptist said it was a prophecy about himself as the forerunner of the Messiah:

JN 1:23 He said, “I am the voice of one crying out in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way of the Lord,’” as the prophet Isaiah said. (NSRV)

IS 40:3 A voice cries out: “In the wilderness prepare the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. (NSRV)

Affirming the existence of John the Baptist is a vehement opponent to the belief that Jesus is the Messiah – the Muslim religion. John the Baptist aka Yahya is referenced in four different books of the Quran. He is described as respectful and obedient to his parents, a devout, noble and chaste person – a prophet and a witness to the truth of the “Word” of God.[3]

Luke’s Gospel and the Quran both describe the miraculous circumstances of the birth of John the Baptist to the barren, aging Elizabeth. Her husband, Zachariah (Zakariya), was struck dumb when an angel delivered the message he was to be a father.[4]

Surah: 21:89-90a “And (remember) Zakariya, when he cried to his Lord… So We listened to him: and We granted him Yahya: We cured his wife’s (Barrenness) for him.”

One of the four Quran references establishes common ground with Judaism and Christianity. John the Baptist is placed in the same company of revered Godly Jewish leaders Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Noah, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, Aaron and…Jesus.[5]

Judaism is another passionate opponent to the Gospel’s proclamation that Jesus is the Messiah. Nevertheless, the Jewish Encyclopedia in its article for the “New Testament” makes references to the life and teachings of Jesus first starting with John the Baptist:

“The whole picture of John the Baptist and of Jesus as bearers of good tidings to the poor has the stamp of greater truthfulness.”– Jewish Encyclopedia[6]

Flavius Josephus was a Pharisee member of the Sanhedrin chosen as a general to lead the Jewish military. After his capture by the Romans, he became a Jewish historian for Rome. In his monumental work, Antiquity of the Jews, he significantly referenced John the Baptist in more than just a passing reference.[7]

“…John, that was called the Baptist for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety toward God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purifications of the body; supporting still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness.” – Josephus

During a trip to Rome, according to Josephus, Herod Antipas stayed with his half-brother Herod Philip (their father was the late King Herod) and met Philip’s wife, Herodias, sister of Agrippa the Great.[8] The two became paramours who conspired to move in together and marry after they returned from Rome with the stipulation Antipas would divorce his current wife.

“…Herodius took upon her to confound the laws of our country, and divorced herself from her husband while he was alive, and was married to Herod [Antipas], her husband’s brother of the father’s side; he was tetrarch of Galilee; but her daughter Salome was married to Philip, the son of Herod, and tetrarch of Galilee…” – Josephus [9]

Unbeknownst to Herod Antipas, his current wife discovered the lover’s affair of her husband with Herodius. In a preemptive move, she requested to be sent to the castle of Macherus near her Arabian King father, Aretas.

Insulted by the infidelity against his daughter, Aretas sent his army to do battle with the troops of Herod Antipas allegedly over a boarder dispute. Aided by the secret troop support of his offended brother, Herold Philip, King Aretas defeated the army of Herod Antipas.[10]

“Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion (for they seemed ready to do anything he should advise) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. Accordingly, he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death…” – Josephus [11]

Twice stated by Josephus, some of the Jews believed the reason for the destruction of Herod Antipas’ army was a punishment from God for killing the Baptist:

“Now, some of the Jews thought that the destructions of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, called the Baptist, for Herod slew him, who was a good man…” [12]

Using the word “repent,” a word that carries a specific religious meaning, it had special connotations to a Pharisee such as Josephus.[13] In Judaism, to repent first requires an act against God’s Law followed by the transgressor’s confession, regret and a promise not to repeat it.[14] Antipas had no desire to repent or change his ways.

Reasons for why John the Baptist was executed can be two distinctly different things, yet both can be true. Matthew and Mark attribute the reason to a grudge held by Herodias for being shamed by John the Baptist for her illicit lifestyle.[15] Josephus attributed a political reason for his execution, the perception that he was a problematic political threat to Antipas. Either way, the problem was solved with the execution of John the Baptist.

An insider source may very well have been Joanna of the Gospels, household manager of Herod Antipas.[16] If not herself, she would have had inside contacts who had knowledge of intimate behaviors in the Herod Antipas’ family.

Judaism, Islam and Christianity, intense opponents of each other’s beliefs plus the secular Roman historian Josephus, all agree as a fact that John the Baptist was a real historical figure who was sent by God. With the role of John the Baptist being an integral part of the life of Jesus of Nazareth, does it confirm the truthfulness of the Gospels?

Updated September 3, 2023.

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[1] John 1:1-8. NASB, NIV, NKJV, NRSB. <> Fontana, Giambattista. Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco. “St. John the Baptist Preaching.” Mr. and Mrs. Marcus Sopher Collection. photo. 16th century. <>
[2] Mark 1:2-4. NASB, NKJV. Footnotes #5, #7. <>
[3] Quran. Surah 3:39; 19:13-14.  Quran. Trans. Abdullah Yusuf Ali. n.d. <
[4] Luke 1:8-25. Quran. Surah: 3:38-41; 19:2-11; 21:89-91.
[5] Quran. Surah: 6:84-86.
[6] “New Testament.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <> CR Singer, Isidore; Adler, Cyrus, et. al.  The Jewish Encyclopedia. Volume 9. 1912. “Luke.” p 251.  <>
[7] Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. Trans. and commentary. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus. Book XVIII, Chapter V.2. <>
[8] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.1
[9] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.4.
[10] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.1. Bunson, Matthew.  Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. “Herod Antipas.” 2002. <>
[11] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.2.
[12] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.2.
[13] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.2; Book VIII, Chapter XII.3. Josephus, Flavius. The Life of Flavius Josephus. #22. Trans. and Commentary. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus.  <>  Josephus, Flavius. Wars of the Jews. Book V, Chapter IX.4; Book VI, Chapter 2.1. Trans. and commentary. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus. <> CR Josephus. Antiquities. Book III, Chapter I.5; Book IV, Chapter III.14, Chapter VIII.2; Book VI, Chapters II.3, III.4; Book VII, Chapter XII.3; Chapter XIII.8.>
[14] Maimonides, Moses. Mishna Torah, Repentance 1. <> “Teshuvah, or Repentance.” 2020. <;
[15] Luke 8:3.
[16] Matthew 14:1-12; Mark 6:17-29.  CR Luke 9:7-9; John 3:24. Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.4. Bunson. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. “Herod Antipas; Herodias.”