Paradox of the Trial

Possibly the greatest paradox in history occurred when Jesus of Nazareth was tried by Jewish magnates for the offense of blasphemy under God’s Law. The open question is whether or not Jesus was telling the truth…

According to the Cambridge Dictionary, a definition of “paradox” is “a statement or situation that may be true but seems impossible or difficult to understand because it contains two opposite facts or characteristics.”[1]

Blasphemy is defined in God’s Law in Leviticus where the consequences of being guilty of the offense was the death penalty.[2] Jewish sages in a Talmud Mishna and Gemara written during the era of Jesus expounded that blasphemy is uttering the name of God and also may include cursing, piercing or incorrectly blessing His name.[3]

Once Jesus said “the Father is in Me, and I in the Father.”[4] On another occasion, Jesus said “…unless you believe that I AM, you’ll die in your sins.”[5] Practically every Hebrew knew that “I AM” is another name for God.

At the height of the trial, High Priest Caiaphas asked Jesus very specifically, “Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?” Under oath Jesus answered, “I AM.”[6] Caiaphas immediately recognized the answer of Jesus and declared it to be blasphemy.

No doubt, Jesus believed and said he is the Son of God. As a result, Jesus of Nazareth was charged with blasphemy and found guilty by the Jewish leadership.

Previously, Jesus challenged people who didn’t believe he is the Son of God should, instead, believe in the miraculous deeds he performed. Nicodemus was one of those people who believed first in the miracles that Jesus performed.[7] The miracles; however, didn’t seem to matter to those judging Jesus.

Undercurrents of the aberrant trial were hugely significant. Promises made at Mt. Sinai two thousand years earlier had implications to the location and timing of the trial and crucifixion of Jesus. Those prophetic promises and their fulfillment laid the ironic groundwork for a paradox.[8]

Scroll back even farther to the book of Genesis during the time when Abraham had moved to a new land after leaving the Ur of the Chaldees with his father and family.[9] In that new land, Mt. Moriah became the place where Abraham took his miraculously born son, Isaac, to be sacrificed to God, then saved at the last moment.[10]

Centuries later, the Hebrews escaped the slavery of Egypt and arrived at Mt. Sinai where God handed down the Law to Moses. God also made promises about the place He had chosen for their future home. The place included Mt. Moriah.[11]

In the promised land of Abraham, a city called Salem had been already built. In the process of conquering enemies in the land of Abraham, Salem was overtaken by Israel’s army and came to be known as Jerusalem encompassing Mt. Moriah.

God promised a kingdom in the land of Abraham. It was established under King David and became the kingdom of Israel.

Another of those promises by God at the place was to provide “the permanent place for His Name to dwell.”[12] In a most unusual twist, King David offered an atonement sacrifice for a grave lack of faith in God. The location of the sacrifice happened to be a threshing floor on Mt. Moriah.

Fire came down from Heaven to burn the atonement sacrifice. King David was so moved by the circumstances surrounding the sacrifice, he chose that spot to be the location for the Temple, “the permanent place for His Name to dwell.”[13]

Matthew and Luke record that Jesus was in the Temple when he referred to Isaiah 56:7 saying “My House will be called a house of prayer.”[14] Jesus claimed the Temple as his house, the place where God’s name dwells, a statement with implications to the blasphemy trial.

God promised at Mt. Sinai that the most complicated cases in the land were to be litigated in the place He chose. Jerusalem became the place, the Judgement Seat of Israel.[15] Jesus was judged in that city by the Jewish leaders of the Sanhedrin.[16]

Sanhedrin, among other responsibilities, served as the supreme court of Israel. Sanhedrin membership consisted of priests, including the High Priest, and members of influential families.[17]

Priests of God themselves were charged with standing before God to serve as judges to honor and preserve the Law.[18] Indeed, even the High Priest Caiaphas was among those who judged Jesus in the Temple, the House where God’s Name dwells.[19]

Passover, since the deliverance from the 10th plague in Egypt, is stipulated by God to occur at an appointed time, Nisan (Abib) 15th. The observance date was codified in the Law at Mt. Sinai and God promised to provide the place to observe the Passover at its appointed time.[20] The Temple in Jerusalem became the only place to offer the Passover sacrifices.[21]

If Jesus is the Son of God, the trial and crucifixion became the ultimate, multifaceted paradox. Jesus was judged at God’s appointed time for the Passover; he was tried in God’s chosen Judgement Seat of Israel in God’s chosen holy city of Jerusalem; in the Temple where God’s name is to dwell; and the judges of the trial included God’s own top-level priests in defense of God’s own Law.[22]

Was the trial of Jesus a paradox – was Jesus the Son of God or a heretic?


Updated May 6, 2024


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


[1] “paradox.” Cambridge Dictionary. 2023. <>  “The Paradox.” image. 2015. <
[2] Exodus 22:28; Leviticus 24:15-16.
[3] Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Ed. Isidore Epstein. Sanhedrin 55b-56a. <>
[4] John 10:38.
[5] John 8:24. ISV.
[6] Mark 14:61. ISV, NLT, NRSV. CR Matthew 9:6, 26.64; Mark 2:10-11, 8:31, 14.62; Luke 5:24, 9:22, 22:69.
[7] John 3:1-2.
[8] “irony.” Cambridge Dictionary. 2023. <>
[9] Genesis 11:31.
[10] Genesis 22:1.
[11] II Chronicles 3:1; II Samuel 5:6-11. Josephus. Antiquities. Book VII, Chapter III. Ryrie Study Bible. Ed. Ryrie Charles C. “Laws relating to conquests” ref. Ex. 23:20-33.
[12] Exodus 23; 29:43-46; 33; Deuteronomy 12:11-14, 16: 11,18-20, 17:8-10; Numbers 34:1-15; I Chronicles 17:3-10. CR Exodus 30:36, 40:2-11, 34-38; Leviticus 16:2; II Samuel 7:12-13.
[13] Deuteronomy 16:1,6. I Chronicles 21:18-26. CR Exodus 12:14-15; Leviticus 23:4-8. CR Deuteronomy 16:1-8; II Chronicles 8:12-14, chapter 29, 35:1-6.
[14] Matthew 21:13; Luke 19:46.
[15] Deuteronomy 17:8. CR Exodus 19:6.
[16] Ariel, Yisrael. “The Chamber of the Hewn Stone.” The Temple Institute. 2019. <> Ariel. “Blueprints for the Holy Temple.” <>
[17] “Sanhedrin.” 2011. <>
[18] Leviticus 19:15-18; Deuteronomy 1:16-17, 17:8-13, 19:15-21, 25:1. CR Exodus 18; 28:1; Numbers 8:14, Deuteronomy 16:18-19, 18:1-6, 21:5; II Chronicles 8:14; 19:8-11; Nehemiah 11:10-18. “Priest.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011.. <
[19] “Sanhedrin.” 2007. <> Schoenberg, Shira. “Ancient Jewish History: The Sanhedrin.” n.d. <> Shurpin, Yehuda. “The Sanhedrin: The Jewish Court System.” n.d. <>
[20] Exodus 12:14-15; Leviticus 23:4-8. CR Deuteronomy 16:1-8.
[21] Deuteronomy 16:1-6. II Chronicles chapters 8, 29, 34-35:19; Ezra 6:16-22. CR Leviticus 23:4-6; Numbers 9:2, 28:16-17. Edersheim, Alfred. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. 1826 -1889. <>  Coulter, Fred R. The Christian Passover. “Chapters 12-13, Part 1. n.d. <>
[22] Exodus 26:31-37. Deuteronomy 12:11-14, 16:18-20; 17:8-10; 18:1-8, 19:15-18.



Unreal Birth Circumstances – Jesus of Nazareth


Circumstances of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth are no less than incredible. A three-way confluence of events from locations in Rome, Persia and Nazareth, hundred miles apart from each other and months in the making, culminated in a small town where none of the figures of the story lived.

Two Gospel accounts cover the Nativity story, Matthew and Luke, each complimenting the other with few overlapping details. According to Luke, Caesar Augustus issued a registration decree although the Roman story behind the story is not told.

Caesar Augustus was designated Pater Patrie of the Roman Empire, Father of the County, on February 5, 2 BC, by the Roman Senate. The achievement was one the 35 highlights in The Deeds of Divine Augustus listing the accomplishments of Caesar over his 25 years of rule.[1]

To honor Augustus in 2 BC, planning began for a special registration of the entire Roman Empire including the provinces, not just the typical census for citizens of Rome. Each registrant was expected to swear an oath of allegiance to Augustus.[2]

Logistics to execute this registration decree required considerable planning, time and resources, especially in a era without electricity, computers, phones, etc. Just the minimal time by horse to enact the announcement in far reaching provinces like Syria would take months.[3]

Meanwhile, Magi “from the East” (Persia, by reputation and historical context), according to Matthew, saw stellar and planetary alignments which signaled something exceptional was about to happen – the birth of a King of Judea. Not just any King – what they saw was so awe-inspiring, they were moved to act.

Believing wholeheartedly in their observations, they planned a journey that would cover hundreds of miles by camel in a quest to find this baby King. Much more than just a tribute visit, they intended to present the baby with precious gifts and worship him.

Greek text of Matthew uses the word proskynēsai or proskuneo translated as “worship.” The word means “to do reverence to;” “bow down or bow down before;” “kneeling or prostration to do homage (to one).”[4]

In another concurrent series of events, while the Magi were on their journey to Jerusalem, Joseph and Mary were busy going about their daily business. Preparing for the arrival of their new baby, they were planning his birth in Nazareth without any clue what was about to befall them.

Suddenly, everything changed – a praeco announced Augustus’ registration decree that compelled the betrothed couple to do the unthinkable. On short notice, an unplanned 90-mile trek on foot to register for the decree in Bethlehem was required in-spite-of Mary’s imminent childbirth.[5]

No one or thing trumped a decree by a Roman Caesar. Although it is not definitively stated that the decree had a deadline, Rome expected prompt compliance. Evidence of this urgency is seen by the immediate response of Joseph and Mary.

People were required to register in the home town of their family linage. In the case of Joseph and Mary, it was Bethlehem, the home town of King David who lived about a 1000 years earlier.

No doubt Mary would give birth before they returned to Nazareth where Mary should have been with her family and friends. Timing in this scenario is critical – if the praeco had announced the decree about two weeks earlier or later, Jesus would not have been born in Bethlehem.

Weary from the unplanned long trip from Nazareth, Joseph and Mary discovered that lodging accommodations in Bethlehem were full and they had to stay in a stable. As if this situation wasn’t challenging enough, Mary went into labor and was forced to give birth to Jesus using a manger for his crib.

According to Luke, the birth of Jesus was heralded by a host of angels. Shepherds left their flocks in the fields and went to Bethlehem to see this sight.

Not knowing their final destination, the Magi initially headed for Jerusalem, the government center of Judea. The city seemed to be a good place to get information and they went to the palace of Judea’s King Herod to ask him.

Arrival in Jerusalem by the Magi entourage was big news. It was not often that Magi visited Jerusalem being off the major trade routes and it likely caused a stir.[6] Further, the mystic Magi practices embraced by Hellenism were shunned by Judaism yet favored by the King.

Herod immediately granted the Magi access to his palace when the they arrived. The reigning King was informed of the news of the birth of a King of Judea, one with his own star – it was most shocking news.

At that point, Herod did not know any further details. However, it can be surmised that the King figured the Magi obviously knew something profound, both considering their reputation and the fact of their long journey to honor and worship this baby.[7]

After the Magi left the palace, the King summonsed the Jewish chief priests and scribes and asked if they knew where Christos was to be born. No ambiguity surrounded the question, the Jewish religion experts knew exactly what Herod was asking. They cited an ancient prophecy from Jewish prophet Micah who foretold the Messiah was to be born in “Bethlehem in land of Judah.[8]

Now that Herod believed he knew where the Christos was to be born, he planned to exchange that knowledge with the Magi to learn the exact location of the baby. The King secretly hailed the Magi to return back to the palace where they unwittingly agreed to the deal.

After leaving the palace, “his Star” reappeared at some point to the Magi and then stood over Bethlehem. The Magi were extremely excited and it corroborated the information given to them from Herod. Still not exactly sure of their final destination, they headed South toward the town just a short distance away.

Far off the path of a major trade route, unexpectedly the Magi from Persia arrived in Bethlehem. If their arrival was big news in Jerusalem, image what it was in the much smaller town. The Magi didn’t belong there, but the destination is where their quest took them.

In a small town where everyone knows everyone else’s business, finding the child would not have been difficult. The Magi found the new family, then presented the newborn with their precious gifts and worshiped him.

Not all the drama was finished. Warned in a dream, according to Matthew, the Magi did not return to Jerusalem to tell Herod where the Christos was located.

Once Herod realized he had been duped, he commanded that all the male babies in the Bethlehem area under 2 years of age to be killed. Actions taken by the King were consistent with his ruthless reputation.

Joseph and Mary with Jesus escaped the King’s horrific murders by hiding in Egypt until Herod died shortly thereafter. Historian Josephus describes in detail events that transpired during the final weeks leading up to the King’s death. Eventually Joseph and Mary returned to Nazareth where they raised Jesus and his siblings.

Was it just a coincidence that a 3-way confluence of events culminating in Bethlehem involved a quest by Magi from Persia following only stellar signs; Caesar’s registration decree intended only to honor himself and Rome; and Joseph and Mary who were compelled by the decree to embark on a 90-mile trip from Nazareth when she was about to give birth? Or was it divine plan? 


Updated May 4, 2024.


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[1] Martin, Ernest L. The Star of Bethlehem – The Star That Astonished the World. Associates for Scriptural Knowledge. 2003. Chapter 13. <>  Gertoux, Gerard. “Dating the death of Herod.” 2015. 2015. <>  Gertoux, Gerard. “Dating the two Censuses of Quirinius.” 2018. <>  Jachowski, Raymond. Academa.Edu. “The Death of Herod the Great and the Latin Josephus: Re-Examining the Twenty-Second Year of Tiberius.” n.d. <> “pater patriae.” Nova Roma. 2007. <>  Mosley, John.  “Common Errors in ‘Star of Bethlehem’ Planetarium Shows.” Reprinted from the Planetarian, Third Quarter 1981, International Planetarium Society, Inc. n.d. <>  Augustus. The Deeds of the Devine Augustus. #35.  Augustus, Caesar.  The Deeds of the Devine Augustus (Res gestae divi Augusti). #35. Trans. Thomas Bushnell. 1998. <>  “pater patriae.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <>  confluence logo. 2019. <>  Hochhalter, Howard. “The Star of Kings and the Magi.” 2023. video. <
[2] Gertoux, Gerard. “Herod the Great and Jesus.” Platner, Samuel Ball. A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. 1929. “Forum Augustum.” <*/Forum_Augustum.html#Aedes_Martis_Ultoris>  CR “Temple of Mars Ultor, Rome.” World History Encyclopedia. n.d. <>
Orbis. Stanford University. map calculator of the Roman world. n.d. <> “Census.” <>  Livius, Titus. The History of Rome. Book 33, #28. <>  Pliny the Elder.  The Natural History. 1.Dedication C. Plinius Secundus to His Friend Titus Vespasian. <>  Gertoux, Gerard. “Dating the two Censuses of Quirinius.” n.d.  <>  Heinrich, Bill. Mysteries of the Messiah. 2016. “The Registration (Census).” <>  Hochhalter. “The Star of Kings and the Magi.”
[3] Orbis. Stanford University. “Travel Time from Ancient Rome.” Brilliant Maps. 2023. <>
[4] Matthew 2:2. n.d. lexicon. <> Matthew 2:2 interlinear. n.d. <> Matthew 2:2. “4352.” n.d. <> “G4352. Greek Dictionary (Lexicon-Concordance). definitions. n.d. <>
[5] Luke 2:4. Smallwood, E. Mary.  The Jews Under Roman Rule: From Pompey to Diocletian. 2nd Ed. 1981. p 152. <>  Heinrich, Bill. Mysteries of the Messiah. 2016. <>  Smith, William; Wayte, William; Marindin, G.E., Ed. A Dictionary  of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 1890. “commentaries, #4;” “census.” <>  Hochhalter. “The Star of Kings and the Magi.”  Tarwacka, Anna. “The consequences of avoiding census in Roman law.” 2013. <>
[6] Matthew 2:3.  Strabo. Geography. Chapters II-III. n.d. <> <>  Diogenes Laertius. Lives of Eminent Philosophers. n.d. <>  Stillwell, Richard et. al. “Gaza Israel.” The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. n.d. <>
[7] Plato. Republic. Book 9, Section 572e. <>  “Daniel, Chief of Wise Men – a Hebrew Magi?” 2018, revised 2023. <>
[8] Matthew 2:4-6. Hochhalter. “The Star of Kings and the Magi.”

Archenemies of Jesus – the Best Witnesses


Archenemies of Jesus of Nazareth, Jewish leaders are some of the best witnesses to his birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection. Typically cited by the Gospels in a negative context, on the flip side they inadvertently acknowledged that Jesus possessed qualities of the Messiah as foretold in the prophecies.

One prophetic requirement generally undisputed by Judaism is the Messiah must be born in the lineage of King David. Neither Jewish leadership then nor Judaism now challenge it. Branch prophecies by Isaiah, Jeremiah and Zachariah, concurred by some Rabbi sages, are among such prophecies.[1]

Joseph and Mary came from Nazareth, a small community strongly influenced by Rabbis who would have been aware of family details such as relatives, reputations, activities, etc. When the decree of Caesar Augustus was announced by the praeco, the Rabbis knew the impact to the town’s residents.

Mary’s baby was in the lineage of King David…or else the couple would not have made the trek to Bethlehem when Mary was about to give birth. Still, with Mary was about to give birth, the couple willingly traveled about 90-miles to Bethlehem at the behest of the decree.[2]

According to Jewish Law, a month after the birth of a first-born son, a male baby was to be redeemed in a ceremony managed by a priest known as the Redemption of the First-born.[3] Luke’s account states that Joseph and Mary took baby Jesus to the Temple in Jerusalem suggesting they didn’t return immediately to Nazareth.

One main purpose of the Redemption of the First-born was to affirm the son’s right of inheritance.[4] Customary practice was for the father to pronounce a blessing on his son at the ceremony to be followed by a feast. A Jewish priest attended the feast and had a dialog with the father to make an impression upon the attendees.

All four Gospels contain accounts of Jewish religious leaders wanting retribution for Jesus when he performed miracles on a Sabbath. To level the accusations, the Jewish leadership first had to acknowledge miracles had occurred in order to criticize the activity.

One Sabbath, Jesus healed a man with a withered hand in a synagogue, a place of prayer and worship headed by a Rabbi.[5] The Pharisees didn’t like that he had performed a miracle on a Sabbath and reacted by plotting against Jesus.[6]

Again in a synagogue on a Sabbath, Jesus saw a woman who had not been able to straighten up for 18 years.[7] When Jesus instantly healed her infirmity, the leader of the synagogue and other critics became indignant, but the crowd’s rejoicing humiliated them compelling them to take no action.[8]

Near the Sheep’s Gate at the Pool of Bethzatha on a Sabbath, Jesus saw a man who had been disabled for 38 years. Jesus simply commanded the man to get up, grab his mat, and walk away which the man did immediately.

Jewish leaders accused the healed man of carrying his mat on a Sabbath in violation of the Law. The man pointed out that the person who healed him told him to do it. Jewish leaders then turned their focus to Jesus and accused him of working on the Sabbath.[9]

On another Sabbath, Jesus noticed a man who had been blind since birth and stopped to talk to him. Jesus smeared mud on the man’s eyes and had him wash it off in the pool of Siloam. The man was then able to see for the first time in his life.

Doggedly the Pharisees questioned the man, then his parents who confirmed his blindness since birth. Questioning the healed man again, he replied by saying that he had already answered the questions, but they obviously didn’t listen.

Pharisees then heaped insults on the man accusing him of not knowing where such a man, Jesus, came from. The man’s response in his own words:

JN 9:30-33 “Why, this is a marvelous thing, that you do not know where He is from; yet He has opened my eyes! We know that God does not hear sinners; but if anyone is God-fearing and does His will, He hears him. Since the beginning of time it has never been heard that anyone opened the eyes of a person born blind. If this man were not from God, He could do nothing.”NASB

Now infuriated, the Pharisees accused the man of being a sinner who had no place to lecture them. They were so upset, they threw him out of the place where they were questioning him.[10]

During a very raucous day, Jairus, a synagogue leader, begged Jesus to heal his 12-year old daughter who was dying. Before Jesus could reach his house, friends arrived with news that the daughter of Jairus had died. Jesus still went to Jairus’ house where he encountered people who were loudly crying and wailing.

Asking everyone to leave excepting Jairus, his wife and some followers, Jesus went into the room and said, “Talitha koum,” get up and walk. The girl immediately stood up and walked around the room astonishing those who were present.11]

Bethany was the town where Lazarus lived, died and was buried. Arriving four days after Lazarus died, Jesus raised him from the tomb where he was laid to rest.[12]

When the Pharisees heard of what had happened and fearing the Romans if the people followed Jesus, they called a council meeting with the chief priests to devise a plan to deal with him. High Priest Caiaphas was at the meeting and proposed that one man, Jesus, should be killed for the entire nation prompting them to make plans accordingly.[13]

Judaism agrees with the Gospels in that Jesus was executed by crucifixion.[14] Ironically, opposite of the Gospels, is the assertion by Judaism that crucifixion is the reason why Jesus could not be the Messiah:[15]

“The very form of his punishment would disprove those claims in Jewish eyes. No Messiah that Jews could recognize could suffer such a death…” (Deut. xxi. 23), ‘an insult to God’ (Targum, Rashi).” –

After the crucifixion of Jesus, Chief priests and the Pharisees approached Rome’s jurisdictional authority of Judea, Pilate, acknowledging Jesus was dead and buried in a tomb – in fact, he was buried by two members of their own Jewish Council.[16] The Jewish leaders then requested Pilate to secure the tomb to prevent the body from being stolen.

As a consequence of their testimony, the tomb was sealed and guarded by a Roman-Jewish contingent called a koustodia. The security was breached supernaturally in a frightening scenario that terrified everyone who witnessed it and they ran away in at least three directions.

According to Matthew, the Jewish Council responded to the report by some of the koustodia that the tomb security was breached and the tomb was now empty. The guards were worried about being punished for dereliction of duty; however, the Jewish Council paid the guards money and promised to take care of Pilate if it became an issue.[17]

Do the acknowledgments by various Jewish leaders to the birth, life, crucifixion and resurrection support the Gospels accounts?


Updated May 6, 2024.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


[1] Isaiah 11:1-2; Jerimiah 23:5, 33:15, Zechariah 3.8, 6:12-13. Maimonides, “Letter to the South (Yemen)”. p374. Neubauer, Adolf, and Driver, Samuel Rolles.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. <>  Crispin, Moshe Kohen ibn. “Sefer ha-Musar.” Neubauer, Driver, et. al. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 99-101.  Marlowe, Michael.  Editions of the Hebrew Text of the Bible. Bible Research. “The Incunabula.” 2012. <>  Rosenau, William. Jewish Biblical Commentators. pp 87-91 n.d. < fifty-third chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 99-100.  Niles, Randall. “Caiaphas the High Priest.” 2017. Image.> Last accessed 23 Mar. 2023.
[2] Nehemiah 12:23. Josephus, Flavius.  The Life of Flavius Josephus. Trans. and Commentary. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus. #1, footnote t. n.d.  <>  Maimon, Moshe ben (Maimonides). “Melachim uMilchamot.” Chapter 11, #4. <>  Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Ed. Isidore Epstein based on the Wilna Romm Edition. Sanhedrin Chapter VI, Folio 43a. 1935-1948. <>  Shachter, J. and Freedman, H. “Sanhedrin.” Soncino Babylonian Talmud. “Introduction.” Greenberg, Eric J. “Jesus’ Death Now Debated by Jews.” Jewish Journal. 2003. Reprinted from The Jewish Week.  <>
[3] Luke 2:21-24.
[4] Exodus 18:25-26; Deuteronomy 1:15-17, 16:18-20; Leviticus 12:6-7; Numbers 18:15-16; Matthew 12:9; Mark 11:18; Luke 6:6-11; John 11:46-48. CR Exodus 13:2; Numbers 3:46-49, Deuteronomy 21:17. Edersheim, Alfred. The Temple – Its Ministry and Service. 1826 -1889. “The Offering for the First-born.” <>  “First-born, Redemption of.” Jewish Encyclopedia. <> “First Born, Redemption of.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. Sanhedrin 49b. Soncino Babylonian Talmud. <>  “Chief Priests.” 2019. <>
[5] John 12:42-43. “What Is a Synagogue?” n.d. <>
[6] Matthew 12:9-14; Mark 3:1-6; Luke 6:6-11.
[7] “Kyphosis.” Mayo Clinic. n.d. <> “What Causes a Hunchback (Kyphosis)? Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Tips.” Doctors Health Press. 2017. <>
[8] Luke 13:10-17.
[9] John 5:3-18.
[10] John 9:1-34.
[11] Mark 5:21-43.
[12] John 11:38-44.
[13] John 11:46-53.
[14] Melachim uMilchamot.” n.d. Chapter 11.4.
[15] Tacitus, Gaius Cornelius. The Annals. 109 AD. Trans. Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb.  Internet Classic Archive. 2009. Book XV.  <>  Suetonius (C. Suetonius Tranquillus or C. Tranquillus Suetonius). The Lives of the Twelve Caesars.  Book VI “Nero.” #16. University of Chicago|Bill Thayer. <>  Lucian of Samosata. “The Death of Peregrine.” The Works of Lucian of Samosata. Volume IV. <> “Jesus of Nazareth.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <> “God Cannot die!” 2012. < Babylonian Talmud. Ed. Epstein, Isidor. “Introduction to the Seder Nezikin.”  Sanhedrin Chapter VI, Folio 43a.  Shachter & Freedman. “Introduction to Sanhedrin.” Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Greenberg, Eric J. “Jesus’ Death Now Debated by Jews.” Jewish Journal. 2003. Reprinted from The Jewish Week. <>
[16] Matthew 27:57, Mark 15:43, Luke 23:50-52, John 19:38. Mark 15:43. Footnote #1. <> Luke 23:50. Footnote #2. <>
[17] Matthew 28: 11-15.