Psalms 118 – Messiah Characteristics

 

Psalms 118 probably comes in a close second behind Psalms 22 in getting the most attention for Messiah prophecies in Psalms, but for opposite reasons. Psalms 22 is front and center because of its controversial nature being consistent with a Roman crucifixion described in the Gospels. Psalms 118, on the other hand, gets attention for its significant uncontroversial prophecies defining the characteristics of the Messiah.[1]

Common ground is found in Psalms 118 among Jewish and Christian religious entities who are typically fierce opponents. Judaism, a renowned Jewish Rabbi sage, Jesus of Nazareth and Christian authorities – all recognize the Psalm defines characteristics about the Messiah.

Judaism regards Psalms 118 as the concept of salvation pointing to the arrival of the Messiah and is, in fact, part of the traditional Jewish Hallel.[2] A stalwart Jewish authority says of Psalms 118:[3]

“The Psalm verses recited have been interpreted by the Rabbis also as referring to the advent of the Messiah (see Midr. Teh. to Ps. cxviii. 17, 21, 22; comp. Matt. xxi. 42).” – Jewish Encyclopedia

“Hallel” in Hebrew means “praise” and in Judaism it is comprised of Psalms 113-118. The Hallel was recited by Levites during the Passover sacrifice and continues to be recited or chanted during the family night celebration of Passover and other Jewish holidays.[4]

Sukkot, also known as the Feast of Booths or Feast of Tabernacles, is one of the three annual pilgrim festivals required by the Law handed down to Moses. The holiday, often referred to as the “season of our Rejoicing,” serves the dual purposes.

One celebration is to commemorate the Hebrews emerging from the 40 years of wondering in the Sinai wilderness where they had lived in temporary shelters or tents called tabernacles (booths).[5] The other purpose of the holiday is to celebrate the harvest.

In past times during each day of the Sukkot festival, a marching procession would wave branches of palm, myrtle and willow.[6] The seventh and final day of Sukkot is called “Hoshana Rabbah” meaning “Great Salvation.” [7]

A reduced version of the Hallel is chanted the final day of Sukkot consisting of only the final verses of Psalms 118 begins with verse 20.[8] Originating from Psalms 118:25 is the Hallel phrase, “Anna Adonai hoshi-‘ah-nna,” shortened to a single word, “hosanna.”[9] Tracing back to ancient Jewish tradition, “hosanna” is the customary joyful shout of celebration.

“Hosanna” is the same word shouted by the crowd when Jesus entered Jerusalem riding on a donkey the Sunday before he would be crucified. All four Gospel authors write about that day considered in Christianity to be a triumphal event now known as Palm Sunday.[10] Jewish Encyclopedia confirms the account in the Gospel of John:

“According to John xii. 13…which has the story preserved in its original form, the same cry was raised by the multitude on the occasion of Jesus’ arrival at Jerusalem. They “took branches of palm-trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried, Hosanna: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord”—that is, the verse following “Anna Adonai hoshi’ah-nna” in the Hallel psalm — and then called him “the King of Israel.” – Jewish Encyclopeda

JN 12:12-13  “The next day a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees and went out to meet Him, and cried out: “Hosanna! ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’ The King of Israel!”” (NKJV)

Backstory to John’s account of the triumphal arrival into Jerusalem involves the account in Luke‘s Gospel of a previous encounter with the Pharisees. They had warned Jesus that Tetrarch Herod Antipas was seeking to have him killed. Not concerned about Herod Antipas, Jesus responded in part by foretelling a future event quoting from Psalms 118:26:

LK 13:35 “…assuredly, I say to you, you shall not see Me until the time comes when you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’”” (NKJV)

PS .118:26 “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD! We have blessed you from the house of the LORD.” (NKJV)

Leading up to his prophecy, Jesus told a parable about a winery rented to tenants by the landowner.[11] Twice the owner sent his servants to collect the rent from the tenants and both times they were harshly rebuffed and beaten.

On the third attempt, the owner sent his only son thinking they would surely respect him, but the tenants actually killed his son. Interpreting the meaning of the parable appearing in all three synoptic Gospels, Jesus quoted Psalms 118:22-23.[12]

MT 21:42 Jesus said to them, “Have you never read in the Scriptures: ‘The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone. This was the LORD’S doing, And it is marvelous in our eyes’? (NKJV)

PS 118:22-23 “The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone. This was the LORD’S doing; It is marvelous in our eyes.” (NASB, NJKV)

Jewish sage Rabbi Rashi wrote his famed commentaries of the Scriptures about a millennium later. In his commentary of the Micah 5:1(2) Bethlehem Messiah prophecy, the Rabbi also quoted from Psalms 118:22. Breaking down the prophecy phrase by phrase, Rashi interpreted the meaning of the phrase “from you shall emerge for Me“:[13]

from you shall emerge for Me: the Messiah, son of David, and so Scripture says (Ps. 118:22): “The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone.” Rabbi Rashi

Psalms 118, according to Judaism and Christianity alike, refers to the Messiah. Was Jesus the Messiah being referenced in this Psalm?

 

Updated October 21, 2022.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1]The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Chabad.org. n.d. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htmJewish Publication Society (JPS) translation. 1917. Benyamin Pilant. 1997. <http://www.breslov.com/bible> Last accessed 20 Apr. 2021.
[2] “Salvation.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <https://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13051-salvation>
[3]“Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7893-hosanna>
[4] “Passover Sacrifice.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <https://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/11934-passover-sacrifice>  “Hallel.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <https://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7800-hodu>  “Holy Days.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <https://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7814-holidays> Posner, Menachem. “What is Hallel?” Chabad.org. 2021. <https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/4181720/jewish/What-Is-Hallel.htm>
[5] Deuteronomy 16:9-17. Leviticus 23:33.  Bogomilsky, Moshe. “Our Season of Rejoicing.” Chadbad.org. 2022. <https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/2829274/jewish/Our-Season-of-Rejoicing.htm>  Pochtar, Israel. “Sukkot – The Feast of Tabernacles.” VoiceofJudahIsael.” n.d. <https://www.vojisrael.org/2020/09/30/sukkot-the-feast-of-tabernacles>   “The Meaning of the Feast of Tabernacles.” OneforIsrael. May 31, 2016. <https://www.oneforisrael.org/holidays/the-meaning-of-the-feast-of-tabernacles>  Hosanna Rabbah. ABQ Jew. image. 2014. <https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-WPtRkzzKUhA/VDLtx5O_rPI/AAAAAAAANEE/Yrwuot1ltN4/s1600/Hoshanna%2BRabba.jpg
[6] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. Rich, Tracey R. “Sukkot.” JewFAQ.org. 2011. <http://www.jewfaq.org/holiday5.htm> “What is Sukkot.” Chabad.org.>
[7] Lawrence, Natan. HoshanaRabbah.org. “Origin of “Hoshana Rabbash.”” 11/15/2019. <https://hoshanarabbah.org/blog/2019/11/15/origination-of-hoshana-rabbah> Rich. “Sukkot.”
[8] “Hallel.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011.
[9] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. “Salvation.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. “Sukkot.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <https://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7814-holidays> Psalms 118:25. BibleHub.com. Lexicon. 2021. <https://biblehub.com/lexicon/psalms/118-25.htm>
[10] Matthew 21: 9, 15; Mark 11:9-10; Luke 19:35-39; John 12:12-13.
[11] Matthew 21:33-40, Mark 12:1-8, Luke 20:09-16.
[12] CR Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17.
[13] Micah 5:1. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16191/showrashi/true> “Rashi.” Your Dictionary. n.d. <https://biography.yourdictionary.com/rashi>  “RASHI Biography.” OxfordChabad.org. n.d. <https://www.oxfordchabad.org/templates/articlecco_cdo/aid/329653/jewish/RASHI-Biography.htm>

 

Psalms – Any Messiah Prophecies?

 

Psalms are quoted in the New Testament more than any other book from the Old Testament, the Tenakh.  Many Psalms include praises, songs, travails, and salvation; some describe characteristics of God; and others are considered to be parallels to the Messiah. The question is whether any of the Psalms are actual prophecies about the Messiah.[1]

Messiah prophecies have to be fulfilled by the one who claims to be the Messiah. If not, then either he is not the Messiah or they were not Messiah prophecies in the first place. Psalms identified by Jesus of Nazareth as prophecies to be fulfilled by himself raises the bar to the highest level – they must be fulfilled if his claim to be the Messiah is credible.[2]

MT: 5:17-18 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not one letter, not one stroke of a letter, will pass from the law until all is accomplished.” (NRSV) * [3]

Pharisees had been watching and listening to Jesus since early in his ministry. One day Jesus took an opportunity to engage them directly asking, “”What do you think of the Messiah? Whose son is he?”[4] Seemingly the question was simple and the Pharisees answered, “The son of David.” Jesus responded pointedly quoting from Psalms 110:1:

MT 22:45 “How then does David in the Spirit call Him ‘Lord,’ saying: ‘The LORD said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool’? If David then calls Him ‘Lord,’ how is He his Son?”(NKJV)

PS 110:1 ‘The LORD said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool”’? (NKJV)

No answer came from the Pharisees, according to Matthew. They were unable to explain the conundrum posed by Jesus from Psalms 110:1 how could the Christ (Messiah) be the son of David when call David himself called him, ‘LORD’ (Jehovah)?

Judaism regards Psalms 118 as the concept of salvation pointing to the arrival of the Messiah recited in the Hallel during Festival holidays.[5] The Jewish Encyclopedia in it’s article entitled “Hosanna,” states Psalms 118 refers to “…the advent of the Messiah (see Midr. Teh. to Ps. cxviii. 17, 21, 22; comp. Matt. xxi. 42).”[6]

MT 21:42 Jesus said to them, “Have you never read in the Scriptures: ‘The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone. This was the LORD’S doing, And it is marvelous in our eyes’?” (NKJV)

PS 118:22-23 The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone.This was the LORD’S doing; It is marvelous in our eyes. (NKJV)

Jewish sage Rabbi Rashi viewed Micah 5:1(2) as a prophecy predicting the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem. In his phrase-by-phrase commentary of the Bethlehem prophecy, the Rabbi quoted from Psalms 118.22:

“from you shall emerge for Me the Messiah, [Rabbi Rashi:) son of David, and so Scripture says (Ps. 118:22): ‘The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone.”

Visiting Bethany just days before entering Jerusalem for the last time, oddly some Pharisees warned Jesus to watch out for Tetrarch Herod Antipas who wanted to kill him. Ignoring the warning, Jesus said he was busy casting out demons and performing cures, then finished with a prophecy quoting from Psalms 118:

LK 13:35 “I say to you, you shall not see Me until the time comes when you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’” (NKJV)

PS .118:26 “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD! We have blessed you from the house of the LORD.” (NKJV)

Mere days later, Jesus rode into Jerusalem seated on the unbroken colt of a donkey while a crowd of people chanted and placed palm branches in his path.[7] All four Gospel authors write about that triumphal day:[8]

JN 12:12-13  “… a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees and went out to meet Him, and cried out: “Hosanna! ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’ The King of Israel!””[9]

Teaching in the Temple just 3 days before he would be crucified, the Pharisees again questioned Jesus by what authority he was teaching. His answer included one of the few parables common to Matthew, Mark and Luke.[10]

Winery tenants who refused to pay rent, beat-up those sent to collect it, and stoned to death the owner’s only son when he personally attempted to collect the rent. Reaction by the Pharisee’s:  “Bring those wretches to a wretched end!”[11] Jesus responded to them, first by quoting Psalms 118:22-23. The Pharisees became angry when they realized the Psalms and parable were about them.[12]

Passover meal became “The Last Supper” for Jesus and as they were eating, Jesus identified a prophecy soon to be fulfilled.[13] He quoted Psalm 41:9 as a prophecy of duplicity foretelling he was imminently to be betrayed by one of his own Disciples.[14]

JN 13:18-19 “I am not referring to all of you; I know those I have chosen. But this is to fulfil the scripture: ‘He who shares my bread has lifted up his heel against me.’ “I am telling you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe that I am He. (NIV)

PS 41:9 Even my close friend, whom I trusted, he who shared my bread, has lifted up his heel against me. (NIV)

According to Jesus, the act of betrayal by Judas was predicted in the Psalms about himself and occurred shortly thereafter.[15] Once Judas Iscariot knew his illicit intentions were known by Jesus, he quickly left the Passover meal.

During his nighttime trial by the Jewish leaders, Jesus spoke only once. When he did, it was earth-shattering in more ways than one. Admitting he is the Messiah, again he referred to Psalms 110:1.[16]

MK 14:62 “‘I am,’ said Jesus, ‘and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power and coming with the clouds of heaven.’”(NIV)

Psalms 22 is generally recognized by Christianity as either a foreshadowing or prophecy about the crucifixion of Jesus. The Psalm, written 1000 years earlier, describes agonizing physical and mental effects remarkably matching an execution by Roman crucifixion.

Two specific actions by others, mocking and gambling, are also described in Psalms 22.[17] According to all four Gospels, the mockers at the crucifixion spewed the same words found in Psalms 22 and the Romans cast lots for the clothes of Jesus.

Another quote from Psalms 22 occurred at the crucifixion. In his excruciating dying moments on the cross, Jesus quoted Psalms 22:1:

MK 15:34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?”— which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”

PS 22:1 …“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so far from saving me, so far from the words of my groaning?” (NIV)

If specific Psalms about the Messiah all came true during the appearance of Jesus of Nazareth, are they then Messiah prophecies about him?

* Greek word nomos translated as “law” means “anything established, anything received by usage, a custom, a law, a command” i.e. the word includes the Law of Moses as well as other established customs or traditions.

Updated January 30, 2023.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] “44 Prophecies Jesus Christ Fulfilled.” Roman Catholic Church of St Thomas More, Swiss Cottage. n.d. <https://parish.rcdow.org.uk/swisscottage/wp-content/uploads/sites/52/2014/11/44-Prophecies-Jesus-Christ-Fulfilled.pdf> Kranz, Jeffrey. “Which Old Testament Book Did Jesus Quote Most?” 2014. <http://blog.biblia.com/2014/04/which-old-testament-book-did-jesus-quote-most> Morales. L. Michael “Jesus and the Psalms.” TheGospelCoalition.org. 2011. <https://www.thegospelcoalition.org/article/jesus-and-the-psalms>  Wilson, Ralph F. “10. Psalms: Looking Forward to the Messiah.” (Psalms 2, 110, and 22).” JesusWalk.com. 2020. <http://www.jesuswalk.com/psalms/psalms-10-messianic.htm>  Rochford, James M. Evidence Unseen. The Psalms. image. n.d. <https://www.evidenceunseen.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/psalminternet-1024×538.jpg>  “Hallel.” MyJewishLearning.com. 2020. <https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/hallel>
[2] Luke 24:44.
[3] “nomos <3551>.” Greek text. Net.Bible.org. 2020. <http://classic.net.bible.org/strong.php?id=3551>  “G3551” LexiconConcordance.com. n.d.  <http://lexiconcordance.com/greek/3551.html>
[4] NET, NIV, NASB, NRSV, NKJV. NetBible.org. Greek text. <http://classic.net.bible.org/verse.php?book=Mat&chapter=22&verse=42> Lexicon-Concordance Online Bible. n.d. <http://lexiconcordance.com/greek/5547.html>
[5] “Psalms 118.” JewwishAwareness.org. 2011. <http://www.jewishawareness.org/psalm-118>  McKelvey, Michael G. “The Messianic Nature of Psalm 118.” Reformed Faith & Practice. 2017. <https://journal.rts.edu/article/messianic-nature-psalm-118> “Hallel” EncyclopædiaBritannica. 2020. <https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hallel>
[6] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7893-hosanna>  CR Mark 12:11; Luke 20:17.
[7] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7893-hosanna>
[8] CR Matthew 21:2-11; Mark 11:1-11; Luke 19:28-40; John 12:12-16.
[9] NKJV.
[10] Matthew 21:33-41; Mark 12:1-12; Luke 20:9-19
[11] Matthew 21:42. NIV, NASB.
[12] Matthew 21:46.
[13] Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-3.
[14] CR Matthew 26:21-25; Mark 14:17-21; Luke 22:21-23.
[15] Matthew 26:46-56; Mark 14:42-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:1-11a.
[16] Mark 14:62. CR Matthew 26:64. Luke 22:69-70.
[17] Psalms 22:8, 18; Matthew 27:41-42, 46; Mark 15:24, 31, 34; Luke 23:35-37; John 19:24. Zugibe, Frederick T. “Turin Lecture:  Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion.” E-Forensic Medicine. 2005. <http://web.archive.org/web/20130925103021/http://e-forensicmedicine.net/Turin2000.htm>

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Resurrection On the Third Day Prophecies

 

Nowhere in the Old Testament or Tenakh can a prophecy be found predicting the Messiah would rise from the dead on the third day. Only in the Gospels can these prophecies be found, all belonging exclusively to Jesus of Nazareth.

Psalms 22 describes a death wholly consistent with the horrors of Roman crucifixion a 1000 years later. Zechariah 12:10 distinctly predicts the Messiah would be killed. Isaiah 52-53 describes the death of the Servant of God who would be despised, suffer greatly, be judged, killed and live again. What isn’t stated is how long the Servant would be dead before he would live again.

First of the third-day Resurrection predictions by Jesus occurred in Caesarea Philippi early in his 3-year ministry.[1] Up to this point, Jesus had been in Galilee giving amazing sermons interspersed with performing miracles of healing incurable diseases and birth defects; casting our demons; and raising the dead. To his Disciples, it didn’t get much better than this.

Word of these miraculous events got back to the Jewish leadership in Jerusalem who began watching and listening to Jesus. According to Mark, Jesus openly prophesied that he would be rejected by the Jewish leaders, killed and then rise again after three days:[2]

MK 8:31-32 “And He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. He spoke this word openly. And Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him.” (NKJV)

Peter took Jesus aside and said, “Far be it from You, Lord; this shall not happen to You!”[3] Seeing that Peter’s comment came straight from Satan, Jesus responded directly, “Get behind Me, Satan! For you are not mindful of the things of God, but the things of men.”[4]

Second of the third-day Resurrection prophecies came again while Jesus was in Galilee.[5] Healing and casting out demons, the crowds had been amazed at everything Jesus was doing, but the Disciples were warned by Jesus that the jubilation about him was only temporary:

MK 9:31 “The Son of Man is to be delivered into the hands of men, and they will kill Him; and when He has been killed, He will rise three days later.” (NASB) [6]

Reaction to the prophecy this time “greatly distressed” the Disciples. They seemed to be focused only on the prediction their teacher and miracle worker would be killed, but not about the prediction he would rise from the dead.[7] Nevertheless, the Disciples were afraid to ask Jesus about the true meaning of the prophecy.[8]

Nearing the end of his three-year ministry, it was just days before entering Jerusalem for the last time at the Festival of the Passover. Luke’s account reports how Jesus again predicted his death, this time providing more specific details. Jesus foretold that the Jews would hand him over to the Gentiles when he would be mocked, spat on, scourged, and killed in fulfillment of the written prophecies:[9]

LK 18:31 “See, we are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written about the Son of Man by the prophets will be accomplished. For he will be handed over to the Gentiles; and he will be mocked and insulted and spat upon. After they have flogged him, they will kill him, and on the third day he will rise again.” (NRSV)

It was a three-fold, inconceivable scenario. Not so much that the Jewish leadership wanted to eliminate their arch nemesis because such a prediction would not be a shocking revelation. The concept that the Gentles would kill Jesus at the behest of the Jews was incomprehensible since the Romans and the Jews reviled each other. Aside from that, it was the seeming impossibility of rising from the dead, much less on the third day.

Shortly before his arrest on Mount Gethsemane, Jesus made one last indirect prophetic reference of his Resurrection to his Disciples. He foretold them, “But after I have been raised, I will go ahead of you to Galilee.”[10]

Matthew uniquely reports the incident between the Jewish leadership and Pilate that took place the day after Jesus was buried, the Sabbath. It is obvious that the author of Matthew had an  insider source to the Jewish Council in order to obtain this exclusive information.

Jewish leadership approached Pilate to explain their concern about the burial of Jesus and try to convince him it was a problem requiring his assistance. An unpleasant concession had to be made – the Jewish leaders had to acknowledge that Jesus did, in fact, predict he would rise from the dead saying, “Sir, we remember, while He was still alive, how that deceiver said, ‘After three days I will rise.’[11]

Next, the Jewish leadership had to convince Pilate of the possible risk of the Disciples stealing the body in an effort to falsely claim fulfillment of the prediction of rising from the dead on the third day:

“Therefore command that the tomb be made secure until the third day, lest His disciples come by night and steal Him away, and say to the people, ‘He has risen from the dead.’ So the last deception will be worse than the first.”(NKJV)[12]

Lastly, they wanted to convince Pilate this was a short-term problem. They only wanted “the tomb be made secure until the third day” which would be the next day, Sunday. The time constraint further confirmed their recognition that the Resurrection prophecy would occur on the “third day” by Jewish reckoning. Pilate conceded saying “…make it as secure as you know how.”[13]

One other ambiguous point was cleared up by the Jewish leadership by acknowledging the Resurrection prediction. They understood the “Son of Man” references in the Resurrection prophecies were about Jesus himself, no one else.

Only Jesus of Nazareth himself foretold multiple times he would rise from dead on the third day, unique from any other Messiah prophecy. Were these Resurrection prophecies fulfilled by Jesus rising from the dead at sunrise on Sunday morning, the third day?

 

Updated September 26, 2022.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] Matthew 16:13, 21,; Mark 8:27, 31. CR Luke 9:18.  “Third Prophecy of the Passion.” The Good News. photo. 2021. <https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-h0pVwogCw_Y/YEAFtTQQv-I/AAAAAAAAQo0/G4rEW9MEHKA0esRitHNcD4xqv9t9dHA3QCLcBGAsYHQ/s441/OIP.jpg
[2] Matthew 3-15; Mark 1-8; Luke 4-9.
[3] Matthew 16:22. NKJV.
[4] Mark 8:33. NJKV.
[5] Matthew 17:22; Mark 9:30.
[6] CR Matthew 17:22-23; Luke 9:44.
[7] Matthew 17:23.
[8] Luke 9:45.
[9] Matthew 20:18-19; Mark 10:33-34; Luke 18:31-33.
[10] Matthew 26:32. NASB.
[11] Matthew 27:63. NKJV.
[12] Matthew 27:64.
[13] Matthew 27:64-65. NKJV.