Triumphal Entry to Jerusalem – Palm Sunday

 

An unusual encounter happened one day while Jesus of Nazareth was working his way through villages and towns heading toward Jerusalem for the final time. Some Pharisees forewarned him that Tetrarch Herod was seeking to have him killed.[1]

No fan of the Pharisees nor Herod Antipas who beheaded John the Baptist, the response was blunt: “Go, tell that fox, ‘Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.’” [2]Jesus finished by quoting from Psalms 118:26.[3]

LK 13:35 “…I say to you, you shall not see Me until the time comes when you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’”

PS .118:26 “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD! We have blessed you from the house of the LORD.” (NKJV)

Lazarus had been raised from the dead in Bethany by Jesus of Nazareth who had then slipped away to Ephraim to escape the constant celebrity turmoil. After a short period of time, he returned to Bethany for a Saturday night dinner at the home of Simon the leper, presumably one of the many lepers previously healed by Jesus.

Martha was serving the meal, her sister Mary and brother Lazarus were also in attendance along with all 12 Disciples.[4] Outside, a crowd of onlookers gathered to see Jesus and Lazarus, the novelty man who had been raised from the dead after 4 days.[5]

Sunday the next morning, Jesus sent Disciples, Peter and John into Jerusalem a couple of miles away to fetch a donkey and find a place to observe the Passover.[6] The entire episode was a mysterious mission – finding a donkey with its young colt belonging to an unidentified person who would also provide a place to eat the Passover meal.[7]

Not knowing any specific details, only clues, the sign for the Disciples would be to find a man carrying a jar of water and a tied-up mother donkey with its colt.[8] They were to untie the donkey and if he asked about it, they were to say, “The Lord needs it.”[9] From there, they were to follow the man to a house, then say to house owner, “The Teacher says, ‘My time is near. I will observe the Passover with my disciples at your house.’”[10]

Exactly as Jesus had predicted, it happened. Peter and John found the donkey with a colt; the person with the donkey asked what they were doing; and after responding as instructed, the man then led them to a house. The owner showed them an upstairs room, fully furnished and prepared for the Passover. [11] Afterwards, the two Disciples then took the donkeys to Jesus.[12]

Matthew and John Gospels point out that this event was a fulfillment of the Zachariah messiah prophecy that foretold the King of Israel would arrive riding on a donkey. Specifically, the foal colt of a donkey – at that age, it had never been ridden.[13]

Zech 9:9:  “Rejoice greatly, O daughter Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter Jerusalem! Lo, your king comes to you; triumphant and victorious is he, humble and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.” (NRSV)

All four Gospel authors write about that triumphal day when Jesus rode into Jerusalem seated on a donkey colt. Many people, including ones who had seen Lazarus raised from the dead, began chanting, laying down their outer garments and placing palm branches in his path. Seeing and hearing all the commotion, others asked, “Who is this?” Christianity refers to this triumphal entry as “Palm Sunday.”[14]

JN 12:12-13  “The next day a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees and went out to meet Him, and cried out:  “Hosanna! ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’ The King of Israel!”” (NKJV)

“Hosanna” is a shortened version of the Hebrew saying “Anna Adonai hoshi-‘ah-nna” from Psalms 118:25.[15] A customary cry of joyful celebration, “hosanna” traces to ancient Jewish times when a marching procession would wave branches of palm, myrtle and willow each day of the Sukkot festival (aka the Feast of Booths or the Feast of Tabernacles). [16]

“According to John xii. 13…which has the story preserved in its original form, the same cry was raised by the multitude on the occasion of Jesus’ arrival at Jerusalem. They “took branches of palm-trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried, Hosanna: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord”—that is, the verse following “Anna Adonai hoshi’ah-nna” in the Hallel psalm — and then called him “the King of Israel.” … The Psalm verses recited have been interpreted by the Rabbis also as referring to the advent of the Messiah…” – Jewish Encyclopedia [17]

Sukkot, usually falling in the month of September, begins five days after Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, one of the three annual pilgrim festivals required by the Law.[18] Often referred to as the “season of our Rejoicing,” the Sukkot holiday serves a dual purpose to both celebrate the harvest as well as the Hebrews emerging from the 40 years of wondering in the Sinai desert wilderness where they had lived in temporary shelters called “tabernacles.”

Seventh and final day of the Sukkot festival is called “Hoshanna Rabbah” meaning “Great Salvation.” It is the day when the Jewish nation is judged by God whether or not to be worthy of the seasonal rains.[19]

Psalms 118 is regarded in Judaism as the concept of salvation pointing to the arrival of the Messiah.[20] In Jewish sage Rabbi Rashi’s commentary of the Micah 5:2(1) Bethlehem prophecy, he quoted from Psalms 118:22 saying “the stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone” expounding that this refers to “the Messiah, son of David.”[21] In reverse, interestingly the Rabbi did not provide this same commentary for the actual verse of Psalms 118:22.[22]

Days earlier, Jesus predicted the Pharisees would not see him until people shouted out the Psalm 118 Messiah praise. The Zechariah prophecy foretold most specifically that the Messiah would come riding on a foal colt donkey. Both scenarios occurred a short time later with the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem riding on an unbroken colt donkey and the throng shouting the exact Psalms hosanna praise.

Were Zechariah’s prophecy and the Psalms 118 prediction by Jesus, both Messiah prophecies, fulfilled that Palm Sunday during his final entry into Jerusalem?

 

Updated September 20, 2022.

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REFERENCES:

[1] Luke 13:31.
[2] Luke 13:32. NJKV.
[3] Luke 13:35.
[4] Matthew 26:6; John 11:43-44, 54; 12:1-2.
[5] John 12:9.
[6] Luke 22:8.
[7] Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 19:28-36. John 11:18; 12:12.
[8] Mark 14:13. Luke 19:30-34.
[9] Matthew 21:3; Luke 19:31-35.
[10] Mark 14:14.
[11] Mark 14:15.
[12] Matthew 21:7; Luke 19:35; John 12:14.
[13] Matthew 21:5; John 12:15.
[14] Matthew 21:2-11; Mark 11:1-11; Luke 19:28-40; John 12:12-16.
[15] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7893-hosanna> Psalms 118:25. BibleHub. Lexicon. 2021.<https://biblehub.com/lexicon/psalms/118-25.htm> “3467. yasha.” BibleHub. 2021. <https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3467.htm>  “Hosanna.” YouTube. photo. 2022. <https://i.ytimg.com/vi/pRpF_lQiroE/maxresdefault.jpg
[16] “What is Sukkot.” Chabad.org. 2014. <http://www.chabad.org/holidays/JewishNewYear/template_cdo/aid/4784/jewish/What-is-Sukkot.htm>  Rich, Tracey R.  “Sukkot.” JewFAQ.org. n.d.  <http://www.jewfaq.org/holiday5.htm>
[17] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2021. <https://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7893-hosanna
[18] Deuteronomy 16:9-17. “Tabernacle, Feast of | Sukkot.” YouTube. photo. 2022. <https://i.ytimg.com/vi/KxFzn-ivQv0/maxresdefault.jpg
[19] Lawrence, Natan. HoshanaRabbah.org. “Origin of “Hoshana Rabbash.”” 11/15/2019. <https://hoshanarabbah.org/blog/2019/11/15/origination-of-hoshana-rabbah> Rich. “Sukkot.”
[20] “Salvation.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13051-salvation> “Salvation.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. Psalms 118:15. BibleHub. Lexicon. 2021. <https://biblehub.com/lexicon/psalms/118-15.htm>  “3444. yeshuah.” BibleHub. 2021. <https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3444.htm>  Psalms 118:15. Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. 2021. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16339/showrashi/true>  Psalms 118:25. BibleHub. Interlinear. 2021. <https://biblehub.com/interlinear/psalms/118-25.htm>  “3467. yasha.” BibleHub. 2021. <https://biblehub.com/hebrew/3467.htm>
[21] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.
[22] Micah 5. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16191/showrashi/true> Psalms 118. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.

Psalms – Any Messiah Prophecies?

 

Psalms are quoted in the New Testament more than any other book from the Old Testament, the Tenakh.[1] Many Psalms include praises, songs, travails, and salvation; some describe characteristics of God; and others are considered to be parallels to the Messiah. The question is whether any of the Psalms are actual prophecies about the Messiah.[2]

Messiah prophecies have to be fulfilled by the one who claims to be the Messiah. If not, then either he is not the Messiah or they were not Messiah prophecies in the first place. Psalms identified by Jesus of Nazareth as prophecies to be fulfilled by himself raises the bar to the highest level – they must be fulfilled if his claim to be the Messiah is credible.

MT: 5:17-18 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not one letter, not one stroke of a letter, will pass from the law until all is accomplished.” (NRSV) * [3]

Judaism regards Psalms 118 as the concept of salvation pointing to the arrival of the Messiah recited in the Hallel during Festival holidays.[4] The Jewish Encyclopedia in it’s article entitled “Hosanna,” states Psalms 118 refers to “…the advent of the Messiah (see Midr. Teh. to Ps. cxviii. 17, 21, 22; comp. Matt. xxi. 42).”[5]

MT 21:42 Jesus said to them, “Have you never read in the Scriptures: ‘The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone. This was the LORD’S doing, And it is marvelous in our eyes’?” (NKJV)

PS 118:22-23 The stone which the builders rejected Has become the chief cornerstone.This was the LORD’S doing; It is marvelous in our eyes. (NKJV)

Jewish sage Rabbi Rashi viewed Micah 5:1(2) as a prophecy predicting the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem. In his phrase-by-phrase commentary of the Bethlehem prophecy, the Rabbi quoted from Psalms 118.22:

“from you shall emerge for Me the Messiah, son of David, and so Scripture says (Ps. 118:22): ‘The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone.”

Visiting Bethany just days before entering Jerusalem for the last time, oddly some Pharisees warned Jesus to watch out for Tetrarch Herod Antipas who wanted to kill him. Ignoring the warning, Jesus said he was busy casting out demons and performing cures, then finished with a prophecy quoting from Psalms 118:

LK 13:35 “I say to you, you shall not see Me until the time comes when you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’” (NKJV)

PS .118:26 “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD! We have blessed you from the house of the LORD.” (NKJV)

Teaching in the Temple just 3 days before he would be crucified, the Pharisees again questioned Jesus by what authority he was teaching. His answer included one of the few parables common to Matthew, Mark and Luke.[6]

Winery tenants who refused to pay rent, beat-up those sent to collect it, and stoned to death the owner’s only son when he personally attempted to collect the rent. Reaction by the Pharisee’s:  “Bring those wretches to a wretched end!”[7] Jesus responded to them, first by quoting Psalms 118:22. The Pharisees became angry when they realized the Psalms and parable were about them.[8]

Days later, Jesus rode into Jerusalem seated on the unbroken colt of a donkey while a crowd of people chanted and placed palm branches in his path.[9] All four Gospel authors write about that triumphal day:[10]

JN 12:12-13  “… a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees and went out to meet Him, and cried out: “Hosanna! ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’ The King of Israel!””[11]

Passover meal became “The Last Supper” for Jesus and as they were eating, Jesus identified a prophecy soon to be fulfilled.[12] He quoted Psalm 41:9 as a prophecy of duplicity foretelling he was imminently to be betrayed by one of his own Disciples.[13]

JN 13:18-19 “I am not referring to all of you; I know those I have chosen. But this is to fulfil the scripture: ‘He who shares my bread has lifted up his heel against me.’ “I am telling you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe that I am He. (NIV)

PS 41:9 Even my close friend, whom I trusted, he who shared my bread, has lifted up his heel against me. (NIV)

According to Jesus, the act of betrayal by Judas was predicted in the Psalms about himself and occurred shortly thereafter.[14] Once Judas Iscariot knew his unscrupulous intentions were known by Jesus, he quickly left the Passover meal.

Pharisees had been watching and listening to Jesus since early in his ministry. One day Jesus took an opportunity to engage them directly asking, “”What do you think of the Messiah? Whose son is he?”[15] Seemingly the question was simple and the Pharisees answered, “The son of David.” Jesus responded pointedly quoting from Psalms 110:1:

MT 22:43-45 “What do you think about the Christ? Whose Son is He?” They said to Him, “ The Son of David.” He said to them, “How then does David in the Spirit call Him ‘Lord,’ saying: ‘The LORD said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool’? If David then calls Him ‘Lord,’ how is He his Son?”(NKJV)

PS 110:1 ‘The LORD said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool”’? (NKJV)

No answer came from the Pharisees, according to Matthew. They were unable to explain the conundrum posed by Jesus from Psalms 110:1 how could the Christ (Messiah) be the son of David when call David himself called him, ‘LORD’ (Jehovah)?

During his nighttime trial by the Jewish leaders, Jesus spoke only once. When he did, it was earth-shattering in more ways than one. Admitting he is the Messiah, again he referred to Psalms 110:1.[16]

MK 14:62 “‘I am,’ said Jesus, ‘and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power and coming with the clouds of heaven.’”(NIV)

Psalms 22 is generally recognized by Christianity as either a foreshadowing or prophecy about the crucifixion of Jesus. The Psalm, written 1000 years earlier, describes agonizing physical and mental effects remarkably matching an execution by Roman crucifixion.

Two specific actions by others, mocking and gambling, are also described in Psalms 22.[17] According to all four Gospels, the mockers at the crucifixion spewed the same word found in Psalms 22 and Romans cast lots for the clothes of Jesus.

Another quote from Psalms 22 occurred at the crucifixion. In his excruciating dying moments on the cross, Jesus quoted Psalms 22:1:

MK 15:34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?”— which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”

PS 22:1 …“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so far from saving me, so far from the words of my groaning?” (NIV)

If specific Psalms about the Messiah all came true during the appearance of Jesus of Nazareth, are they then Messiah prophecies about him?

* Greek word nomos translated as “law” means “anything established, anything received by usage, a custom, a law, a command” i.e. the word includes the Law of Moses as well as other established customs or traditions.

Updated October 23, 2022.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] “44 Prophecies Jesus Christ Fulfilled.” Roman Catholic Church of St Thomas More, Swiss Cottage. n.d. <https://parish.rcdow.org.uk/swisscottage/wp-content/uploads/sites/52/2014/11/44-Prophecies-Jesus-Christ-Fulfilled.pdf> Kranz, Jeffrey. “Which Old Testament Book Did Jesus Quote Most?” 2014. <http://blog.biblia.com/2014/04/which-old-testament-book-did-jesus-quote-most> Morales. L. Michael “Jesus and the Psalms.” TheGospelCoalition.org. 2011. <https://www.thegospelcoalition.org/article/jesus-and-the-psalms>  Wilson, Ralph F. “10. Psalms: Looking Forward to the Messiah.” (Psalms 2, 110, and 22).” JesusWalk.com. 2020. <http://www.jesuswalk.com/psalms/psalms-10-messianic.htm>  Rochford, James M. Evidence Unseen. The Psalms. image. n.d. <https://www.evidenceunseen.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/psalminternet-1024×538.jpg>
[2] “Hallel.” MyJewishLearning.com. 2020. <https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/hallel>
[3] “nomos <3551>.” Greek text. Net.Bible.org. 2020. <http://classic.net.bible.org/strong.php?id=3551>  “G3551” LexiconConcordance.com. n.d.  <http://lexiconcordance.com/greek/3551.html>
[4] “Psalms 118.” JewwishAwareness.org. 2011. <http://www.jewishawareness.org/psalm-118>  McKelvey, Michael G. “The Messianic Nature of Psalm 118.” Reformed Faith & Practice. 2017. <https://journal.rts.edu/article/messianic-nature-psalm-118> “Hallel” EncyclopædiaBritannica. 2020. <https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hallel>
[5] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7893-hosanna>  CR Mark 12:11; Luke 20:17.
[6] Matthew 21:33-41; Mark 12:1-12; Luke 20:9-19.
[7] Matthew 21:42. NIV, NASB.
[8] Matthew 21:46.
[9] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7893-hosanna>
[10] CR Matthew 21:2-11; Mark 11:1-11; Luke 19:28-40; John 12:12-16.
[11] NKJV.
[12] Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-3.
[13] CR Matthew 26:21-25; Mark 14:17-21; Luke 22:21-23.
[14] Matthew 26:46-56; Mark 14:42-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:1-11a.
[15] NET, NIV, NASB, NRSV, NKJV. NetBible.org. Greek text. <http://classic.net.bible.org/verse.php?book=Mat&chapter=22&verse=42> Lexicon-Concordance Online Bible. n.d. <http://lexiconcordance.com/greek/5547.html>
[16] Mark 14:62. CR Matthew 26:64. Luke 22:69-70.
[17] Psalms 22:8, 18; Matthew 27:41-42, 46; Mark 15:24, 31, 34; Luke 23:35-37; John 19:24. Zugibe, Frederick T. “Turin Lecture:  Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion.” E-Forensic Medicine. 2005. <http://web.archive.org/web/20130925103021/http://e-forensicmedicine.net/Turin2000.htm>

 

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