What are the odds the circumstances surrounding the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth that correspond with many ancient prophecies was just a coincidence?

The One Undisputed Messiah Requirement

One undisputed Messiah prophecy requirement serves as common ground to Judaism and Christianity where both are in agreement. Beginning in Genesis with Jacob and then in Exodus by Moses, prophecies laid the foundational requirements for the Messiah.

First the prophecy came in the form of a blessing when Jacob, aka Israel, gave a blessing to each of his 12 sons. One son, Judah, received the blessing that his family-tribe would become the lineage of the “scepter”:

Gen 49:8-10 “Judah, [as for] you, your brothers will acknowledge you. Your hand will be at the nape of your enemies, [and] your father’s sons will prostrate themselves to you.  A cub [and] a grown lion is Judah.  From the prey, my son, you withdrew. He crouched, rested like a lion, and like a lion, who will rouse him?  The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor the student of the law from between his feet, until Shiloh comes, and to him will be a gathering of peoples.”(Complete Jewish Bible)[1]

Rabbi Rashi, one of Judaism’s most revered sages, identified Shiloh as the “King Messiah, to whom the kingdom belongs.” The“scepter” refers to the royal lineage of “David and thereafter” – the kingdom of David.[2]

Moses at Mt. Sinai received the Law from God that appears in the books of the Law, the Torah – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy and Numbers. Much more than just the 10 Commandments, the Laws of God also included promises and prophecies. One was the promise of a kingdom in a place where God would choose.[3]

Leaving Mt. Sinai on their quest to reach the promised land of Abraham, the tribes of Israel were defeating one enemy after another creating dread by those kings and nations lying in their path. One enemy king, Balak, thought he could cleverly use God to prevent his Moab nation’s defeat.

Persistently asking the prophet Balaam to place a curse from God on the Hebrews, Balaam refused. In response, he instead issued a momentous Messiah prophesy saying:

Num 24:17 “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth.”(New American Standard Bible)

“Scepter” is translated from the same Hebrew word shebet in Jacob’s blessing of Judah.[4] Rashi again says the scepter represents “a king who rules dominantly” this time pointing to the future lineage of King David. He “shoots out like an arrow” from Jacob and uproots the sons of Sheth or Seth, the son of Adam; in other words, symbolically all of mankind.[5]

Rabbi Maimonides in his “13 Principles of Faith” that serves to define the fundamental basis of the Jewish faith,  interprets Balaam’s prophecy as referring to the future King David and the Messiah.[6] Based on this prophecy and Deuteronomy 30:3-5, Maimonides expounds that the future Messiah will be a king who will come from the “House of David.”

Multiple prophecies by prophets after the reign of King David, most notably Isaiah and Jeremiah, foretold of judgements for disregarding God, yet they included promises of forgiveness and redemption. Jeremiah issued two commonly recognized Messiah prophecies:[7]

Jer 23:5 “”Behold, the days are coming,” says the LORD, “That I will raise to David a Branch of righteousness; A King shall reign and prosper, And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth…””

Jer  33:15 “‘In those days and at that time I will cause to grow up to David A Branch of righteousness; He shall execute judgment and righteousness in the earth…’”(New King James Version)

Isaiah, regarded by Judaism and Christianity to be the greatest of all the prophets, issued multiple Messiah prophecies – which ones are Messiah prophecies is where Jews and Christians part company.[8]

For Christians, one of Isaiah’s earliest Messiah prophecies often appears during Christmas season, Isaiah 9:6-7. Rabbi Rashi, on the other hand, viewed the prophecy as referring to King Hezekiah a few decades later, not the Messiah – regardless that two of the names for the figure in the prophecy are “Mighty God” and “Everlasting Father”:[9]

Is 9:6-7 “For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever.(Jewish Publication Society)[10]

Rabbi Jose the Galilean, in the Jewish Babylonian Talmud tractate on “Peace,” identifies one of the names of the Messiah as the “Prince of Peace” who would be “upon the throne of David” citing Isaiah 9:5, 52:7 of Isaiah’s 52-53 parashah, and Moses in Deuteronomy 20:10:[11]

“R. Jose the Galilean said: The name of the Messiah is also “peace” (Shalom), as it is written [Is. ix. 5]: “The prince of peace.” … When the Messiah shall come to Israel, he will begin with peace, as it is written [Is. lii. 7]: “How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger of good tidings, that publisheth peace, that announceth tidings of happiness, that publisheth salvation, that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth.” He also said: Great is peace, because even wars are waged for the sake of peace, as it is written [Deut. xx. 10]…”(Babylonian Talmud)

Two chapters later in Isaiah appear two more controversial Messiah prophecies referencing the “root of Jesse,” the father of King David, yet there is disagreement over its prophetic meaning. The first appears in the first two verses of Isaiah 11. While Christians view them as Messiah prophecies, Rashi teaches they again refer to King Hezekiah:

Is 11:1-2 “And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots: And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.”(Jewish Publication Society)[12]

Rabbi Tanhun in the Talmud interprets one of the six blessings of Ruth 3:17 as referring to the Messiah where he cites Isaiah 11:2. Quoting the Rabbi from the Rodkinson translation, “Messiah–as it reads [Is. xi. 2]: “And there shall rest upon him the spirit of the Lord, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the Lord.”[13] The Rabbi clarifies the “rod out of the stem of Jesse,” who is his son King David, from whom “a Branch shall grow out of his roots,” is the Messiah.

Jewish sages interpret the prophecies of the scepter, the Prince of Peace, and the Branch as referring to the Messiah who must born in the family lineage of King David of the tribe of Judah. The question then becomes, what are the odds that Jesus of Nazareth is the fulfillment of these Messiah prophecies?

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REFERENCES:

[1] The Compete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. 2019. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm>
[2] Rashi. The Compete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary.  Commentary on Genesis 49:10.
[3] Dueteronomy17:14-15.
[4] Net.bible.org. Numbers 24:17. Hebrew text shebet <07626>. 2019. <http://classic.net.bible.org/strong.php?id=07626>
[5] Rashi. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Numbers 24:17 commentary.
[6] Maimonides.  “The Law Concerning Moshiach.” Ed. Yechezkal Shimon Gutfreund, Chapters 11 & 12. <http://www.kesser.org/moshiach/rambam.html#SIE>
[7] Rich, Tracey R. “Mashiach: The Messiah.” Judaism101. 2011. <http://www.jewfaq.org/mashiach.htm>
[8] “Isaiah.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8235-isaiah> “Isaiah.” Biblica | The International Bible Society. 2019. <https://www.biblica.com/resources/scholar-notes/niv-study-bible/intro-to-isaiah>
[9] Rashi. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Isaiah 9:6 commentary.
[10] “The Book of Yeshayahu (Isaiah): Chapter 9.” Jewish Virtual Library. 2019. <https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/yeshayahu-isaiah-chapter-9>
[11] The Babylonian Talmud. Trans. Michael L. Rodkinson. 1918. Book 5: Tractate Derech Eretz-Zuta, “The Chapter on Peace.” p 32. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t05/ere18.htm>  “Minor Tractate Zuta Rabbah: Chapter on Peace.” Jewish Virtual Library. 2019. <https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/minor-tractate-zuta-rabbah-chapter-on-peace> “Jewish Concepts: Peace.” Virtual Library. 2019. <https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/peace> “Jose the Galilean.” Jewish Encyclopedia. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8788-jose-the-galilean>
[12] “The Book of Yeshayahu (Isaiah): Chapter 11. Jewish Virtual Library. 2019. <https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/yeshayahu-isaiah-chapter-11>
[13] “Tractate Sanhedrin: Chapter 11.” Virtual Library. 2019. <https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/tractate-sanhedrin-chapter-11>  CR Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Ed. Isidore Epstein. “Sanhedrin 93.” 1935-1948.  <https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/sanhedrin/sanhedrin_93.html#93b_12>

The Greatest Offer in History – Turned Down

King Ahaz knew the trustworthy reputation of Isaiah who had prophesied to two previous kings, his father King Jotham and grandfather King Uzziah.[1] When the prophet spoke, Ahaz was fully aware that Isaiah was speaking directly for God. How then did the King botch the greatest opportunity offered by God to a man?

Ten generations earlier, the House of David was split by God as a punishment for worshipping pagan gods Sidonian goddess Astarte, Moabite god Chemosh and Ammonite god Milcom.[2] For David’s sake and to preserve His chosen home, Jerusalem, God retained the city and split off 10 tribes of Israel whom He promised to bless if they followed God like David had done.[3]

King Rehoboam, son of Solomon, ruled the nation of Judah in Jerusalem while the 10 tribes followed Jeroboam, son of Nebat from the tribe of Ephraim, who became their King of the nation Israel.[4] The two nations became enemies and with time fractured even further when tribes Manasseh and Ephraim split off from Israel warring with each other and then allying against Judah. [5]

During the reign of Ahaz, King Pekah of Ephraim allied with King Rezin of Syria (Aram or the Arameans) to attack Judah besieging Jerusalem. Inside the city, Ahaz and the people were greatly distressed.[6]

To calm their fears, God sent Isaiah promising protection to Jerusalem and King Ahaz, even foretelling that Ephraim as a nation would be eliminated within 65 years.[7] To assure the shaken King of God’s promise, Ahaz was given the unparalleled opportunity to ask for a miraculous sign with boundless limitations – any sign between Heaven and Hell to prove His promise was indisputable:

Is 7:11 “Ask a sign for yourself from the LORD your God; make it deep as Sheol or high as heaven.”(NASB)

Unbelievably, King Ahaz refused to take the offer! He said to Isaiah, “I will not ask, nor will I test the LORD!”[8] Knowing the true reason for Ahaz’ response and not taking kindly to this attitude, God’s response to Ahaz certainly didn’t ease the King’s anxieties.

Isaiah replied, “Is it too slight a thing for you to try the patience of men, that you will try the patience of my God as well?”[9] No longer speaking just to the King, Isaiah response was now addressing a much broader audience, “Listen now, O house of David!”[10]

Isaiah’s response to Ahaz’ attitude in was, in effect, “let me tell you about God’s marvelous sign!” The unsurpassed parameters of the sign were already established – it had to be something between Heaven and Hell so miraculous, so fantastic it would be unequalled:

Is 7:14: “Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and shall call His name Immanuel.” (NKJV)

Three explicit details make the Isaiah 7:14 prophecy precise. The prophesied female would be a specific virgin, “the virgin,” a reference to a female used only twice previously in Hebrew Biblical history – Rebekah, the virgin bride of Isaac, and Miriam, the virgin sister of Moses.[11] Gender of the virgin’s child was foretold to be a boy and he was named by God, also a Biblical rarity.

Various rationalizations are proposed claiming Isaiah 7:14 is not a Messiah prophesy. Some argue the prediction was really about an unidentified young female who was present with King Ahaz and Isaiah, even going so far as to say the female was already pregnant.[12] Jewish sage Rabbi Rashi taught that the prophecy was about Manoah’s wife, mother of Sampson, the Biblical strongman.[13]

Others contend the Christian Bible translations are a mistranslation, a misinterpretation, or an error.[14] A few go so far as to accuse Christians of a conspiracy to intentionally change the text as a false means to support Christianity.

Science says otherwise. Written centuries before Jesus of Nazareth was born, the Qumran discovery of the complete Great Isaiah Scroll written in ancient Hebrew contains the Isaiah 7:14 words ha-almah, “the virgin.”[15]

King Ahaz botched the opportunity to choose any sign between Heaven and Hell that resulted in God providing a seemingly impossible prophetic sign – was it a Messiah prophecy? The test of truth is straightforward – would the ability of a virgin to naturally conceive a baby boy who was named by God rise to the level of an unparalleled, matchless sign of God?

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REFERENCES:

[1] 2 Chronicles 26.22-23; 27:1-2; 2 Kings 15:32-34, 38; Isaiah 1:1; 7:1.
[2] I Kings 11:4-8, 33; I Chronicles 3:10-13.
[3] I Kings 11:26-49.
[4] I Kings 12:16-20, 26.
[5] I Kings 14:30. Isaiah 9:21.
[6] Isaiah 7:2.
[7] Isaiah 7:2, 8.
[8] Isaiah 7:12. NASB, NKJV.
[9] Isaiah 7:13.
[10] NKJV.
[11] Isaiah 7:14. Bible Hub. Hebrew text. <https://biblehub.com/text/isaiah/7-14.htm>  Genesis 24:43. Bible Hub. Hebrew text. <https://biblehub.com/text/genesis/24-43.htm>  Exodus 2:8. Hebrew text. BibleHub. <https://biblehub.com/text/exodus/2-8.htm>
[12] Nahigian, Kenneth E. “A Virgin-Birth Prophesy?” Skeptic Tank Files. n.d. <http://www.skeptictank.org/files/sr/2virgi93.htm>  Cramer, Robert Nguyen.  “The Book of Isaiah.”  The BibleTexts.com.. 1998 <http://www.bibletexts.com/verses/v-isa.htm>  Cline, Austin. “Who Was Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus? Was She Really a Virgin?” About.com|Agnosticism/Atheism. n.d. <http://atheism.about.com/od/biblepeoplenewtestament/p/MaryVirgin.htm>  Yosef, Uri.  “Isaiah 7:14 – Part 1: An Accurate Grammatical Analysis.” The Jewish Home. 2011. <http://thejewishhome.org/counter/Isa714_1.pdf>  Bratcher, Dennis. “Isaiah 7:14: Translation Issues.”  The Voice. 10 Feb. 2014.  <http://www.crivoice.org/isa7-14.htmlThe Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Yeshayahu- Isaiah 7:14.   <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/15938/showrashi/true>  “Who is the Almah’s son?” Teshuvas HaMinim. 2011. <http://web.archive.org/web/20120425022737/http://www.teshuvashaminim.com/isaiah714.html>
Robinson, B.A. “Isaiah 7:14 “Behold, a virgin shall conceive…”” Religious Tolerance. 2007  <http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_proi.htm>  Gill. John Gill’s Exposition of the Whole Bible.  Isaiah 7:14 commentary. <https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/isaiah-7.html>
[13] The Compete Jewish Bible- with Rashi Commentary. Isaiah 7:14, CR Judges Chapter 13.
[14] Nahigian. “A Virgin-Birth Prophesy?”  Cramer. “The Book of Isaiah.”  Cline, Austin. “Who Was Virgin Mary, Mother of Jesus? Was She Really a Virgin?” Yosef, Uri. “Isaiah 7:14 – Part 1: An Accurate Grammatical Analysis.” Bratcher, Dennis. “Isaiah 7:14: Translation Issues.”
[15] “Isaiah 7:14-Deception In The Name Of Jesus.” Agnostic Review of Christianity. n.d.  <http://agnosticreview.com/isaiah7.htm>  Miller. Fred P. “The Translation of the Great Isaiah Scroll.” Book of Isaiah. Column VI Isa 6:7 to 7:15. 2001. <http://www.moellerhaus.com/qa-tran.htm>  Miller. Fred P. “Commentary on Isaiah – In-depth verse-by-verse study of Isaiah.” Moellerhaus Publisher. 1999. <http://moellerhaus.com/7-8.htm>  Isaiah 7:14. Bible Hub. Hebrew text. <https://biblehub.com/text/isaiah/7-14.htm>  Isaiah 7:14 BibleHub.com. Interlinear Bible Hebrew text  “5959 [e] hā·‘al·māh”. <http://biblehub.com/interlinear/isaiah/7-14.htmOrthodox Jewish Bible (OJB) translation for Isaiah 7:14. <https://biblehub.com/ojb/isaiah/7.htm>

The Great Isaiah Scroll – Are Its Messiah Prophecies Authentic?

Isaiah is considered by Judaism and Christianity to be the greatest of all the prophets making the Book of Isaiah the greatest of all the books of the prophets.[1] The Talmud contains many references and interpretations of Isaiah’s prophecies with Sanhedrin 98 alone making 10 references.[2]

Beginning to end, the Book of Isaiah is chalked full of Messiah prophecies although which ones are messianic sparks a conflict. Undisputed are the three prophecies foretelling the future Messiah would come from the son of Jesse, the throne of David.[3] Of these, one is the first Messiah “Branch” prophecy followed a hundred years later by two Jeremiah “Branch” prophecies and a century after that, Zechariah’s two “Branch” prophecies.[4]

Perhaps the greatest of all offers made by God to a man is the story in Isaiah of King Ahaz who turned it down! The King was given an opportunity to choose any miraculous sign unbounded between Heaven and Hell as proof that Isaiah’s prophecy of protection would come true.[5] Suspicious, Ahaz declined the challenge leading to the famed, yet controversial, prophecy of Isaiah 7:14.

Christianity and Judaism virtually agree Isaiah 7:14 predicts the birth of a son, but they part company about it being a prophecy of the Messiah’s birth. Matthew’s Gospel contains the account when the Archangel Gabriel told Joseph his betrothed virgin wife, Mary, would give birth to a son fulfilling Isaiah’s prophecy of ha-almah.

Much more than a single word, the parashah or pericope of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 depicts a man’s manner of torture and suffering who is killed and buried. Moreover, the death and burial among the rich described in Isaiah 53:8-9 is followed by a description of life again in the remaining two verses. The many details in the parashah mirror the Gospel accounts of the crucifixion death, burial and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth.

Judaism typically treats the Isaiah 52-53 parashah as a prophecy about Israel, but with some very notable exceptions.[6] Prominent Rabbis – Maimonides, Jose the Galilean, Crispin – point to a combined 5 different Messiah prophecies within the parashah of Isaiah 52:13 – 53:12.[7] “The Rabbis” in Sanhedrin 98b reference Isaiah 53:4 identifying one of the names of the Messiah.[8]

Hours before his arrest, Jesus quoted Isaiah 53:12 to his Disciples, “‘And he was numbered with the transgressors’” saying the prophecy written about himself was to be fulfilled.[9] Three years earlier, launching his ministry in the synagogue of his home town, Jesus of Nazareth read from the prophecy of Isaiah 61 saying, “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing.”[10]

Paramount to all of these prophecies is having confidence that the Book of Isaiah is credible and reliable.[11] Archeology played a major role in that determination with the discoveries of the Qumran Scrolls from 1947-1956 and their restoration.[12]

Most Qumran scrolls were only in fragments, but one scroll was complete – the scroll of Isaiah.[13] For good reason, the scroll has been dubbed “The Great Isaiah Scroll” and is on display in Jerusalem at the Shrine of the Book.[14]

A precept of the science of textual criticism is the shorter the time interval between the original and the existing text, the greater the level of textual purity – the shorter the timeframe, the fewer number of interim handwritten copies where variations are inevitably introduced.[15]

Isaiah’s book was written around 700 BC and the Scroll is dated to between 200-100 BC. When compared to other well-known texts of antiquity, textual purity of the Scroll is of the highest degree especially considering that the some Hebrew scrolls have been known to be used in synagogues for hundreds of years.[16]

Until the Qumran discoveries, the oldest textual content of Isaiah was the Masoretic Aleppo manuscript, the source for the Jewish Tenakh. The Aleppo text was written about 1000 years after the Scroll.[17] Are the expected variances minor or significant?[18]

Surprising to experts, little variation is found between the Scroll and Aleppo texts. One Scroll translator, Jeff A Benner, explains his translation methodology on his website, “The Great Isaiah Scroll and the Masoretic Text.”  Focusing on the controversial Isaiah 53, the findings of his analysis:

“The major difference between the Aleppo Codex and the Dead Sea Scrolls is the addition of the vowel pointings (called nikkudot in Hebrew) in the Aleppo Codex to the Hebrew words.”

“Of the 166 words in Isaiah 53, there are only 17 letters in question. Ten of these letters are simply a matter of spelling, which does not affect the sense. Four more letters are minor stylistic changes, such as conjunctions. The three remaining letters comprise the word LIGHT, which is added in verse 11 and which does not affect the meaning greatly. Furthermore, this word is supported by the Septuagint (LXX). Thus, in one chapter of 166 words, there is only one word (three letters) in question after a thousand years of transmission – and this word does not significantly change the meaning of the passage.”

Benner points out the only variation of any significance, a single word, is still consistent with the Septuagint text. About 100 years before the Scroll was written, the Septuagint LXX translation was produced from 285-247 BC. According to Josephus, Egypt ruler Ptolemy Philadelphius required 72 Jewish scribes to be separated and translate Hebrew Scripture to produce a complete Greek translation.[19] The Septuagint is the primary basis of the Christian Bible.

Fred P. Miller is another Scroll text translator with his own website, “The Translation of the Great Isaiah Scroll.” Miller attributes the Scroll text to not being a “translation,” rather a copy that merely reflects dialects of the era similar to updating old English, such used as in the King James Version, to modern English used in the New King James Version. Miller’s finds the results “remarkable”:

“With this fact in mind, (that the Qumran scribes used their own discretion to alter the text to fit their own dialect), then the correspondence between the text of the Great Isaiah Scroll and the Masoretic text of Isaiah is all the more remarkable.”

Science has proven the Book of Isaiah holding its many prophecies genuinely and accurately appear in today’s Jewish and Christian Bibles. The question is not whether the prophecies of Isaiah are legitimate; rather, which are Messiah prophecies and have any been fulfilled?


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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] “Isaiah.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8235-isaiah> “Isaiah.” Biblica | The International Bible Society. 2019. <https://www.biblica.com/resources/scholar-notes/niv-study-bible/intro-to-isaiah>
[2] Soncino Babylonian Talmud.  Sanhedrin 98a, footnote #1. Isaiah XLIX:7, XVIII:5, I:25, LIX:19, LIX:20, LX:21, LIX:16, XLVIII:11, LX:22, LIII.4.<https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/sanhedrin/sanhedrin_98.html#98b_31>  CR The Babylonian Talmud. Trans. Michael L. Rodkinson. 1918. Sanhedrin, Chapter XI, p 310. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t08/t0814.htm>
[3] Isaiah Is 9:6-7; 11:1-2, 10.  CR 1 Chronicles 2:12-15; Ruth 4:21-22. Matthew 1:5-6. Ryrie. “Introduction to the Book of Isaiah.”
[4] Jeremiah 23:5; 33:14-15. Zechariah 3:8, 6:12-13.
[5] Isaiah 7:11, NASB,
[6] The Compete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. Isaiah 42:13-14 Rashi commentary. <http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm>  Singer, Tovia.  “Who is God’s Suffering Servant? The Rabbinic Interpretation of Isaiah 53.”  Outreach Judaism. 2015.  <http://outreachjudaism.org/gods-suffering-servant-isaiah-53> Gold, Moshe “Israel’s Messenger, The Suffering Servant of Isaiah – A Rabbinic Anthology.” Israel’s Messenger. 2009. Jewish Awareness Ministries. <http://www.jewishawareness.org/the-suffering-servant-of-isaiah-a-rabbinic-antholo>
[7] Neubauer, Adolf, and Driver, Samuel Rolles.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. 1877. Moses Maimonides.  “Letter to the South (Yemen).” pp xiv, 99-117, 374-375.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=YxdbAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=advent&f=false>  CR Babylonian Talmud Sotah 14a.  The Babylonian Talmud. Trans. Michael L. Rodkinson. 1918. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t05/abo06.htm>
[8] Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Sanhedrin 98b, footnote #31. <https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/sanhedrin/sanhedrin_98.html#98b_31>
[9] NIV. Luke 22:37.
[10] NASB, NRSV. Luke 4:21. CR Matthew 12:15-21 citing Isaiah 42:1-4; Luke 22:37 reference to Isaiah 53:12.
[11] Cohen, Menachem.  “The Idea of the Sanctity of the Biblical Text and the Science of Textual Criticism.” Bar-Ilan University. 1979. <http://cs.anu.edu.au/%7Ebdm/dilugim/CohenArt>  Benner, Jeff A. “The Great Isaiah Scroll and the Masoretic Text.” Ancient Hebrew Research Center. 2017.  <http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/bible_isaiahscroll.html>  Zeolla, Gary F.  “Textual Criticismj.” Universitat De Valencia. 2000.  <http://www.uv.es/~fores/programa/introtextualcritici.html>  “Isaiah.” Biblica.
[12] “The Dead Sea Scrolls.” The Israel Museum. 2019. <https://www.imj.org.il/en/wings/shrine-book/dead-sea-scrolls> “Isaiah.” Biblica.
[13] “The Dead Sea Scrolls.” The Israel Museum.  Benner. “The Great Isaiah Scroll.”
[14] Benner. “The Great Isaiah Scroll…” “The Dead Sea Scrolls.” The Israel Museum.
[15] Westcott & Hort. The New Testament in the Original Greek. Pages 31, 58-59, 223-224, 310-311. [xv] Miller. Fred P.  The Great Isaiah Scroll. Moellerhaus Publisher. 1998. “Qumran Great Isaiah Scroll.” <http://www.moellerhaus.com/qumdir.htm>  Benner. “The Great Isaiah Scroll.”
[16] Benner. “The Great Isaiah Scroll.”
[17] Benner. “The Great Isaiah Scroll.” “Isaiah.” Biblica.
[18] Jenkins, Rob. “Literary Analysis as Scientific Method.”  The Chronicles of Higher Education. March 6, 2012.  <http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/onhiring/literary-analysis-as-scientific-method/30565>
[19] “Septuagint.” Septuagint.Net. 2014.  <http://septuagint.net>  Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. Trans. and commentary. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus. 1850. Book XII, Chapter II.1-6, 13-1. <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>  Benner. “The Great Isaiah Scroll.”  Lundberg, Marilyn J. “The Leningrad Codex.”  USC West Semitic Research Project. 2012. <https://web.archive.org/web/20140826133533/https://www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/wsrp/educational_site/biblical_manuscripts/LeningradCodex.shtml>  “Septuagint.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2019. <https://www.britannica.com/topic/Septuagint> Cohen.  “The Idea of the Sanctity of the Biblical Text and the Science of Textual Criticism.”