Interpretations of the Rabbis – the Messiah Prophecies

Tenakh and Old Testament Scriptures originate essentially from the same Hebrew texts, but when it comes to Messiah prophecies, interpretations vary widely. Christianity and Judaism disagree on any prophecy about the Messiah deemed to be fulfilled by Jesus of Nazareth.

Among the authorities of Judaism, the Rabbi sages are not always in agreement on which prophecies point to the Messiah. Christianity is no exception where differences exist on such topics as baptism, worship, confessions – even salvation.

Some Rabbi sages  became known for their views documented in commentaries, letters or published works. Other Rabbis expressed themselves through their contributions to the Babylonian Talmud in its various Gemaras.

Rabbi Rashi is esteemed for his Scriptural commentaries. So much so, a mainstream Jewish Bible is named the Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary.[1]

Fondly called Rambam, Rabbi Maimonides authored the Mishneh Torah known for formulating the Law into the 13 principals of Jewish faith.[2] The work is regarded for codifying the halakhah or Jewish Law.[3]

Rabbi Jose the Galilean is known both for his quoted contributions in Talmud Gemaras as well as for his independent commentaries. He was a distinguished Rabbi leader as an authority on sacrifices and the Temple.

Moshe Kohen ibn Crispin was a renowned twelfth century Rabbi and poet from Spain. His acclaimed contribution to Judaism is his Jewish work entitled Sefer ha-Musar meaning the Book of Instruction.[4]

Renaissance era Rabbi David Kimchi aka RaDaK is highly regarded by Jewish authorities of whom it is said “Where there is no Kimchi, there is no law.”[5] The Prophets edition of the Torah reveals RaDaK’s commentaries written in the margins.

Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein during the first half of the last century served as Editor for the Soncino Babylonian Talmud edition intended to reproduce a “clear and lucid” literal English translation in the restored, uncensored version.[6] Under his Editorship, bracketed words were added to clarify the text.[7] Censored or removed content was restored either in the body of the text or reintroduced within the footnotes. A Glossary and an Abbreviation table added even more clarity.[8]

One of the oldest Messiah prophesies is Jacob’s blessing of Judah in Genesis, recognized by Rashi as establishing the foundation for the future Messiah. The blessing foretells his son’s descendants, the Tribe of Judah, would become a like a lion where the “scepter” would remain until the coming of “Shiloh.”

Rashi identified “Shiloh” as the “King Messiah, to whom the kingdom belongs” and that the “scepter” refers to the royal lineage of “David and thereafter.”[9] Translated from the Hebrew word shebet as “scepter” or “staff,” it is the same word that appears in Balaam’s prophecy:[10]

Num 24:17 “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth.” (NASB)

Providing more insight to the meaning of shebet, Rashi remarked the Messiah is one who “shoots out like an arrow” from Jacob and uproots the sons of Sheth or Seth (the son of Adam).[11]Maimonides, in the Mishneh Torah, expounded on Balaam’s prophecy. The Rabbi interpreted it to be referring to “King Moshiach” (Messiah) who would come from the lineage of David.[12]

“My Servant” in the Isaiah 52:13 – 53:12 parashah or passage is viewed by Christianity predicting the suffering, death and Resurrection of the Messiah, a prophecy fulfilled by Jesus of Nazareth. Judaism generally treats “My Servant” as a metaphor of a single man representing the nation of Israel.[13] Yet Rabbi sages, going back to the days of the Talmud, pointed to 5 different Messiah prophecies within the parashah.

Sanhedrin 98b quotes Isaiah 53:3 as the basis for one of the names of the Messiah.[14] Independently, Rabbi Jose the Galilean wrote the Messiah would be wounded for our transgressions quoting from Isaiah 53:5 and 53.7.[15] In a responsa letter from Maimonides, he referred to Isaiah 53:2 and 52:15 writing that the Messiah would be identified by his origins and his wonders.[16]

Rabbi Moshe Kohen ibn Crispin said in a counterview opinion that “My Servant” in the Isaiah 52-53 parashah refers to “King Messiah” while admitting his interpretation is in conflict with the prevailing Jewish position. In Sefer ha-Musar, Crispin gave surprisingly bold verse by verse commentaries defining expectations for the Messiah. [17]

Frequently seen during Christmas season in western cultures is Isaiah 9:6 foretelling a son who would bear the full responsibility for the government; one to be known by many names. Judaism generally disagrees it is a Messiah prophecy:

IS 9:6 “For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.” (NKJV)

One name, the “Prince of Peace,” is addressed by Rabbi’s in a Talmud Gemara found in “The Chapter on Peace.” Rabbi Jehoshua asserted the Prince was the “Holy One…called “Adonay-shalom” Rabbi Jose the Galilean declared “Peace” is the name of the Messiah, “as it is written ‘The prince of peace.’” Rashi viewed the prophecy to be about Kings David and Hezekiah.[18]

Micah 5:2 seemingly unambiguously predicts the birthplace of the future ruler of Israel, yet it is challenged by some Jewish authorities.[19] Rashi interpreted the verse to be foretelling the Messiah would come from Bethlehem, the son of Jesse, the son of King David.[20] Quoting Psalms 118:22, “The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone,” Rashi then revealed another name for the Messiah, “Yinnon,” who is older than the sun referring to Psalms 72:17.

Zechariah 12:10 predicts the Messiah is to be killed, the open question between Judaism and Christianity is the interpretation of the Hebrew word daqar as “pierced” or “thrust through.” Some Rabbis in the Talmud Gemara Sukkah 52a believed it to be a Messiah prophecy, but not all. Rashi offered a third interpretation saying the prophecy is about Zerubbabel while acknowledging others view it to be about the Messiah.[21]The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary and other Jewish Bibles interprets daqar as “thrust through.”

Psalms 22, along with the Isaiah 52-53 passage, is a preeminent Messiah prophecy recognized by Christianity predicting in detail the circumstances of the death of Jesus of Nazareth by crucifixion. Judaism, on the other hand, focuses solely on the second verse “Why have you forsaken me?” as the basis for the Psalm being about the nation of Israel.

Rashi interpreted the verse this way: “They are destined to go into exile, and David recited this prayer for the future.” Later in verse 27, “The humble shall eat and be sated; they shall praise the Lord, those who seek him; your hearts shall live forever,” the Rabbi remarked about its meaning: “at the time of our redemption in the days of our Messiah.”[22]

Studying and researching the Bible using the ancient Hebrew texts is one good way to determine the true meaning of the Messiah prophecies. Which prophecies point to the Messiah that, in turn, set the requirements and expectations for the Messiah?

 

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] The Complete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. <http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm>
[2] Maimonides. Mishneh Torah. Trans. Eliyahu Touger.  <http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/682956/jewish/Mishneh-Torah.htm>
[3] Rich, Tracey R. “Jewish Beliefs.” JewFAQ.org. n.d. <http://www.jewfaq.org/beliefs.htm>
[4] Crispin, Moshe Kohen ibn.  “Sefer ha-Musar.”  Neubauer, Driver & Rolles.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 99-100.  <https://books.google.com/books?id=YxdbAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[5] “Kimhi” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/9320-kimhi>  Marlowe, Michael.  Editions of the Hebrew Text of the Bible. Bible Research. “The Incunabula.” 2012. <http://www.bible-researcher.com/hebrew-editions.html>  Rosenau, William. Jewish Biblical Commentators. pp 87-91 n.d. <http://www.archive.org/stream/jewishbiblicalco00rose/jewishbiblicalco00rose_djvu.txt>  Mindel, Nissan. “Rabbi David Kimchi – RaDaK.” Chabad.org. 2020. <http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/111880/jewish/Rabbi-David-Kimchi-RaDaK.htm>
[6] Epstein, Dr. Isador, Editor. Soncino Babylonian Talmud. “Introduction to Seder Nezikin:  General Character and Contents.” 1935-1948. <https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/talmud/nezikin.html>
[7] Epstein, Dr. Isador, Editor. Soncino Babylonian Talmud. “Come and Hear.”1935-1948. <https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/talmud/index.html>
[8] Epstein. “Come and Hear.” “Soncino Talmud Glossary” and “Abbreviations Used in the Soncino Talmud.”
[9] Rashi. The Compete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. Genesis 49:10 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/8244/showrashi/true>  Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 98a.
[10] Numbers 24:17. NetBible.org. Hebrew text shebet <07626> <http://classic.net.bible.org/strong.php?id=07626>
[11] Rashi. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary  Numbers 24:17 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/9952/showrashi/true>
[12] Maimonides. “The Law Concerning Moshiach.”  
[13] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Isaiah 53:3-4 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/15984/jewish/Chapter-53.htm/showrashi/true>  Neubauer, Driver & Rolles.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. p 37.  Gold, Moshe “Israel’s Messenger, The Suffering Servant of Isaiah – A Rabbinic Anthology.” Israel’s Messenger. 2009. Jewish Awareness Ministries. <http://www.jewishawareness.org/the-suffering-servant-of-isaiah-a-rabbinic-antholo>
[14] Isaiah 53:3. Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Sanhedrin 98b, footnote #31. CR Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 12-16. <https://books.google.com/books?id=YxdbAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP1#v=snippet&q=Galilean&f=false>
[15] Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. p 11. 
[16] Maimonides. “Letter to the South (Yemen)”. p 374. Neubauer and Driver. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters
[17] Crispin, Moshe Kohen ibn. “Sefer ha-Musar.” Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 99-101.
[18] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.  Isaiah 9:6.  Rashi commentary. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10777-micah-book-of>  The Babylonian Talmud. Trans. Michael L. Rodkinson. 1918. Book 5: Tractate  Derech  Eretz-Zuta, “The Chapter >on Peace.”  Internet Sacred Text Archives. 2010. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/talmud.htm> CR Judges 6:24. NetBible.org. Hebrew text “Y@havah shalowm” <03073>.
[19] “Micah, Book of.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. “Contents and Unity.” <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10777-micah-book-of>
[20] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.  Micah 5:1 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16191/showrashi/true>
[21] The Complete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. Zechariah 6:12 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16210/showrashi/true>
[22] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.  Psalms 22. Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16243/showrashi/true>

Zechariah’s Messiah Prophecies – Explicit Details

Zechariah is listed as a “Minor Prophet” in Old Testament or Tenakh Bibles, yet the prophetic Book bearing his name holds some of the most explicit information of all the books of any prophet.[1] The Book corroborated the lineage of Jesus of Nazareth in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke; foretold Messiah prophecies; and issued two more Branch prophecies.

On the timeline of history, Zechariah was written during the Persian Empire under the reign of King Darius, reckoned to 520 BC.[2] It was a time when the Jews were receiving back their freedoms taken away during their Captivity under the rule of Babylon.[3]

Progress on the decree issued by Persian King Cyrus to rebuild the Temple destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar’s army had been hindered for years by troublesome political enemies of the Jews.[4] King Darius was compelled to issue another decree to complete the rebuilding of the Temple:[5]

EZ 6:7, 12 “Leave this work on the house of God alone; let the governor of the Jews and the elders of the Jews rebuild this house of God on its site…”May the God who has caused His name to dwell there overthrow any king or people who attempts to change it, so as to destroy this house of God in Jerusalem. I, Darius, have issued this decree, let it be carried out with all diligence!” (NASB)

Genealogies in Matthew and Luke list the decent of Jesus of Nazareth in the lineage of King David that included Zerubbabel, son of Shealtiel, son of Jeconiah. Substantiating the Gospels’ lineage, some 500 years earlier Zechariah wrote that Zerubbabel would lay the foundation for the rebuilding of the Temple.[6] The Books of Ezra and Haggai provide extensive details about Zerubbabel’s efforts in rebuilding the Temple.[7]

Messiah prophecies built upon each other over time revealing more specifics. From Abraham to Moses to David and the many prophets thereafter, the prophecies over the course of the previous 1500 years came in the form of visions, trances, parables and dreams.[8]

Prophecies of Zechariah came in the form of visions and oracles, some very straightforward and specific, others more challenging to interpret. One of the most specific, uncomplicated of any Messiah prophesy is where Zechariah foretold how the Messiah would come riding on a colt foal donkey – an unridden male under a year old:[9]

Zech 9:9 “”Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your King is coming to you; He is just and having salvation, Lowly and riding on a donkey, a colt, the foal of a donkey.”” (NKJV) [10]

Branch prophecies were issued by three prophets during the span of over 200 years. Before the Jewish Captivity of King Nebuchadnezzar, Isaiah issued a Branch prophecy. During the Babylonian Captivity, Jeremiah delivered two more Branch prophecies. After the Captivity during rule of the Persian Empire, twice Zechariah issued Branch prophecies:

Zech 3:8 “‘…For behold, I am bringing forth My Servant the BRANCH.’”

Zech 6:12-13 “…‘Thus says the LORD of hosts, saying: “Behold, the Man whose name is the BRANCH! From His place He shall branch out, And He shall build the temple of the LORD; Yes, He shall build the temple of the LORD. He shall bear the glory, And shall sit and rule on His throne; So He shall be a priest on His throne, And the counsel of peace shall be between them both.”’’” (NKJV)

Christianity views these Branch prophecies to be foretelling the Messiah; however, in Judaism there is a split on their meaning. Jewish sage Rabbi Maimonides viewed the Branch prophecies to be about the Messiah.[11] Rabbi Rashi viewed them to be prophecies about Zerubbabel while acknowledging others view it to be about the Messiah.[12]

Jewish and Christian authorities alike recognize Zechariah 12:10 as a Messiah prophecy with nearly unanimous consensus that the Messiah would be killed. Differing views on how he would be killed centers squarely on the meaning of one Hebrew word, daqar, translated in essentially two ways as “pierced” or “thrust through.”

Debate in a Gemara took place in the Babylonian Talmud Sukkah 52a over the meaning of the prophecy. One faction viewed it as referring to the death of the “Evil Inclination” and the other side believed the prophecy referred to the death of the Messiah. Jewish Bibles translate daqar as “thrust him through.”

Zech 12:10 “…and they shall look unto Me because they have thrust him through; and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his first-born.” (Jewish Publication Society)

Traditional Christian Bibles translate daqar as “pierced,” but it is not unanimous. Contemporary, simplified Bible translations are more closely aligned with the Jewish Bibles’ interpretation of daqar as stabbed or thrust through with a spear.[13]

Zech 12:10 “… then they will look on Me whom they pierced.”(New King James Version)

“They will look at me, whom they have stabbed.” (God’s Word Translation)

“They’ll then be able to recognize me as the One they so grievously wounded–that piercing spear-thrust!” (Message)

Language analysis reveals the Hebrew word, daqar, appears in the Tenakh or Old Testament nine other times – eight different Books plus another in Zechariah.[14] It is always used in the context of wounds inflicted by a type of weapon such as a sword or spear.

Zechariah’s Messiah prophecies may be few in number, but they have major implications. Were his prophecies fulfilled by the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth?

 

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] Jewish Publication Society (JPS) translation. 1917. Benyamin Pilant. 1997. <http://www.breslov.com/bibleNET Bible (NET) translation.  <https://net.bible.org>
[2] Zechariah 1:1. NetBible.org. Footnote #2. <http://classic.net.bible.org/bible.php?book=Zec&chapter=1#n2>
[3] Zechariah 1:1.
[4] Ezra 1:2-3.  Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Book II, Chapter 4. 1883. Philogos.org. <https://philologos.org/__eb-lat>
[5] Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. Trans. and commentary.  William Whitson.  The Complete Works of Josephus. 1850. Book XI, Chapter III.8 and IV.1-2, 7. <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
[6] I Chronicles 3:17-19; Zechariah 4:6-10; Matthew 1:1-16; Luke 3:23-38.  CR Ezra 3:2, 8, 4:2-3, 5:2; Haggai 1:1, 14, 2:20-23. Dolphin, Lambert.  “The Genealogy from Adam to Jesus Christ” Idolphin.org. 2011. <http://ldolphin.org/2adams.html>
[7] Ezra 3-5; Haggai 1-2.
[8] Genesis 41:1-14; Numbers 24:15-17; 2 Samuel 12:1-13; 1 Kings 20:35-42; Psalms 78:1-3; Daniel 2:27-28, 4:4-10, chapters 8 & 10; Isaiah chapter 5; Hosea 12:10.
[9] Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi commentary. Zechariah 9:9. Rash commentary. https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16213/showrashi/true>  “Understanding Donkey Behavior.” The Donkey Sanctuary. 2018. <https://www.thedonkeysanctuary.org.uk/sites/sanctuary/files/document/142-1404405754-donkey_health_and_welfare_19.pdf>
[10] Matthew 21:1-8; Luke 19:29-36; John 12:12-16. “Zechariah Texts Quoted in the New Testament Regarding Jesus’ Ministry.” ESV.org. 2020. <https://www.esv.org/resources/esv-global-study-bible/chart-38-01>
[11] Maimonides, “Letter to the South (Yemen)”. p 374.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters.  <https://books.google.com/books?id=YxdbAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP1&hl=en#v=onepage&q=advent&f=false>   
[12] The Complete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. Zechariah 6:12 Rashi commentary. <http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm>  Plaut, Gunther. “Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi: Back in the Land.” MyJewishLearning.com. n.d. <http://www.myjewishlearning.com/texts/Bible/Prophets/Latter_Prophets/The_12_Minor_Prophets/Haggai_Zechariah_Malachi.shtml>
[13] Contemporary English Verson; Good News Translation; God’s Word translation; Zechariah 12:10. BibleHub.com. 2020. <https://biblehub.com/zechariah/12-10.htm>  The Message; Bible in Basic English. Zechariah 12:10. NetBible.org. 2020. <http://classic.net.bible.org/verse.php?book=Zec&chapter=12&verse=10>
[14] “daqar.” Net.bible.org. Hebrew text. <http://classic.net.bible.org/search.php?search=hebrew_strict_index:01856> Sapir, Avinoam. LSI Laboratory for Scientific Interrogation, Inc. n.d. <http://www.lsiscan.com/index.htm>  “SCAN – Scientific Content Analysis (Statement Analysis).” Advanced Polygraph. 2011. <http://www.advancedpolygraph.com.au/scan.htm> “Introduction to Text Analysis: About Text Analysis.”  Duke University | Libraries. 2017. <https://guides.library.duke.edu/text_analysis>  “What Is the Definition of Textual Analysis?” Reference.com. 2018. <https://www.reference.com/education/definition-textual-analysis-a95087916fcb24cb> Pfarrer, Mike “What is content analysis?” University of Georgia | Terry College of Business. 2012. <http://www.terry.uga.edu/management/contentanalysis>

John the Baptist – Does His Existence Validate the Gospels?

Was John the Baptist a real historical figure and would it validate the truthfulness of the Gospels? The question is answered by some very unusual sources, fierce opponents of Christianity.

Mark begins its Gospel immediately by declaring Jesus to be the Son of God. Following next is a montage of quotes from three prophecies – Exodus 23:2, Malachi 3:1, Isaiah 40:3. These prophecies serve as the pretext to introduce John the Baptist who identifies himself as the predecessor for the One whose sandal laces he was not worthy to untie.[1]

John, the eyewitness Gospel, recognizes John the Baptist as the one who testified about the Light identified as Jesus Christ.[2] Denying he is the Messiah, the Priests and Levites then questioned his true identity. John the Baptist quoted Isaiah 40:3 saying he was the one being prophesied.

JN 1:26, 29 “’I baptize with water. Among you stands one whom you do not recognize, who is coming after me. I am not worthy to untie the strap of his sandal!’

“On the next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, ‘Look, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world! This is the one about whom I said, “‘After me comes a man who is greater than I am, because he existed before me.’” (NET)

One of the most passionate opponents to the belief that Jesus is the Messiah is Judaism. Nevertheless, the Jewish Encyclopedia in its entry for the “New Testament” makes references to the life and teachings of Jesus first starting with John the Baptist:

“The whole picture of John the Baptist and of Jesus as bearers of good tidings to the poor has the stamp of greater truthfulness.”[3]

Formerly a Pharisee member of the Sanhedrin chosen as a general to lead the Jewish military was Flavius Josephus. After his capture by the Romans, he became a Jewish historian for Rome. In Antiquity of the Jews, he specifically wrote about John the Baptist using nearly 300 words.[4]

“…John, that was called the Baptist for Herod slew him, who was a good man, and commanded the Jews to exercise virtue, both as to righteousness towards one another, and piety toward God, and so to come to baptism; for that the washing [with water] would be acceptable to him, if they made use of it, not in order to the putting away [or the remission] of some sins [only], but for the purifications of the body; supporting still that the soul was thoroughly purified beforehand by righteousness.”

Corroborating the Gospel accounts, Josephus details more unseemly circumstances behind the execution of John the Baptist. The initial setting starts with Tetrarch Herod Antipas being married to the daughter of Arabian Petra King Aretas.

During a trip to Rome, Herod Antipas stayed with his half-brother Herod Philip (their father was the late King Herod); met and fell in love with Philip’s wife, Herodias, sister of Agrippa the Great.[5] The two paramours conspired to move in together after they returned from Rome based on the agreement Antipas would divorce his current wife.

“…Herodius took upon her to confound the laws of our country, and divorced herself from her husband while he was alive, and was married to Herod [Antipas], her husband’s brother of the father’s side; he was tetrarch of Galilee; but her daughter Salome was married to Philip, the son of Herod, and tetrarch of Galilee…”[6]

Unbeknownst to Herod Antipas, his current wife discovered the tryst. In a preemptive move, she requested to be sent to the castle of Macherus which was near her Arabian father. Insulted by the infidelity against his daughter, King Aretas sent his army to do battle with the troops of Herod Antipas allegedly over a boarder dispute. Aided by the secret support of Herold Philip’s troops, Aretas defeated the army of Herod Antipas.[7]

Insider and outsider views of why John the Baptist was executed can be two distinctly different things, yet both can be true. An insider source to the Gospel authors may very well have been Joanna, household manager of Herod Antipas.[8] She would have had sources and intimate knowledge of the thinking inside of the family of Herod Antipas.

Matthew and Mark attribute the reason for the execution of John the Baptist to a grudge held by Herodias for being shamed by him.[9] Josephus attributed the public reason for the execution of John the Baptist to the perception that he was a political threat:

“…Herod, who feared lest the great influence John had over the people might put it into his power and inclination to raise a rebellion (for they seemed ready to do anything he should advise) thought it best, by putting him to death, to prevent any mischief he might cause, and not bring himself into difficulties, by sparing a man who might make him repent of it when it would be too late. Accordingly, he was sent a prisoner, out of Herod’s suspicious temper, to Macherus, the castle I before mentioned, and was there put to death…” – Josephus[10]

Interestingly, Josephus used the word “repent,” a word in Judaism that carries a specific religious connotation, especially for a Pharisee.[11] To repent first requires an act against God’s Law followed by the transgressor’s confession, regret and a promise not to repeat it.[12]

Execution by a ruler was not necessarily a sin against God and, regardless, could not be undone whereas repentance of violating God’s Law for adultery certainly fits the concept of redemption. Some of the Jews believed, twice stated by Josephus, the reason for the destruction of Herod Antipas’ army was a punishment from God for his execution of John the Baptist:

“Now, some of the Jews thought that the destructions of Herod’s army came from God, and that very justly, as a punishment of what he did against John, called the Baptist, for Herod slew him, who was a good man…” [13]

Affirming the life of John the Baptist is another strong opponent to the belief that Jesus is the Messiah – the Muslim religion. John the Baptist aka Yahya is referenced in four different books of the Quran. He is described as respectful and obedient to his parents; a devout, noble and chaste person – a prophet and a witness to the truth of the “Word” of God.[14]

Luke’s Gospel and the Quran both describe the miraculous circumstances of the birth of John the Baptist to the barren, aging Elizabeth. Her husband, Zachariah (Zakariya), was struck dumb when an angel delivered the message he was to be a father.[15]

Surah: 21:89-90 “And (remember) Zakariya, when he cried to his Lord… So We listened to him: and We granted him Yahya: We cured his wife’s (Barrenness) for him.

Shockingly, one of the four Quran references provides common ground with Judaism and Christianity. John the Baptist is placed in the same named company of revered Godly Jewish leaders Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Noah, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, Aaron and…Jesus.[17]

Judaism, Islam and Christian, intense opponents of each other’s beliefs, by virtue of their common agreement establish a fact of truth that John the Baptist was a real historical figure sent by God. Does his fact then validate the truthfulness of the Gospels and their accounts about Jesus of Nazareth?


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] Mark 1:2-4. NetBible.org. Footnotes #5, #7. <http://classic.net.bible.org/bible.php?book=Mar&chapter=1>
[2] John 1:1-8.  NASB, NIV, NKJV, NRSB. <http://classic.net.bible.org/bible.php?book=Joh&chapter=1>
[3] “New Testament.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/11498-new-testament> CR Singer, Isidore; Adler, Cyrus, et. al.  The Jewish Encyclopedia. Volume 9. 1912. “Luke.” p 251.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=lfoOtGOcIBYC&lpg=PA594&ots=6qoCfVVUz7&dq=wave%20sheaf%20encyclopedia&pg=PA594#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[4] Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. Trans. and commentary. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus. Book XVIII, Chapter V.2. <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[5] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.1
[6] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.4.
[7] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.1.
[8] Luke 8:3.
[9] Matthew 14:1-12; Mark 6:17-29.  CR Luke 9:7-9; John 3:24. Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.4.
[10] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.2.
[11] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.2; Book VIII, Chapter XII.3.  Josephus, Flavius. The Life of Flavius Josephus. #22. Trans. and Commentary. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>  Josephus, Flavius. Wars of the Jews. Book V, Chapter IX.4; Book VI, Chapter 2.1. Trans. and commentary. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus. <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>  CR Josephus. Antiquities. Book III, Chapter I.5; Book IV, Chapter III.14, Chapter VIII.2; Book VI, Chapters II.3, III.4; Book VII, Chapter XII.3; Chapter XIII.8.
[12] Maimonides, Moses. Sefaria.org. Mishna Torah, Repentance 1. <https://www.sefaria.org/Mishneh_Torah%2C_Repentance.1?lang=bi> “Teshuvah, or Repentance.” MyJewishLearning.com. 2020. <https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/repentance>
[13] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter V.2.
[14] Quran. Surah 3:39; 19:13-14.
[15] Luke 1:8-25. Quran. Surah: 3:38-41; 19:2-6; 21:89-91.
[16] Quran. Surah: 6:84-86.