The Death of King Herod – 4 BC or 1 BC?

Jesus of Nazareth was born during the lifetimes of three historical names referenced in the Nativity accounts of Matthew and Luke.[1]Herod’s death being the first becomes the lynch pin date used to determine the birth year of Jesus. Not without controversy, it has posed a challenge for believers and detractors alike.

Antiquity had no standardized calendar, as such timelines and dates were linked to well-known historical events. Establishing the date of Herod’s death requires piecing together such clues as the reigns of Tiberius, King Herod and his son; the Battle of Actium; the Jewish religious calendar; astronomical data, etc.

Adding another level of complexity is “inclusive reckoning,” the question of whether a partial year was counted as a full year in historical references. The unsettled question brings to bear a plus or minus factor of a year.[2]

Herod’s death year is commonly calculated by historians using Josephus’ reference in Antiquities to his son, Philip, who began his regional reign, as did his two brothers Herod Antipas and Aristobulus, after King Herod died.[3] The quote from Antiquities based on the original Gutenberg printings establishes the timeline:[4]

“…Philip, Herod’s brother, departed this life, in the twentieth year of the reign of Tiberius after he had been tetrarch of Trachonitis, and Gaulonitis, and of the nation of Bataneana also thirty-seven years.

Philip died in the 20th year of the reign of Tiberius whose reign began in 14 AD. Adding 20 years lands in 34 AD to establish the year of Philip’s death. Subtracting 37 years of Philip’s rule backdates to the commonly accepted year for King Herod’s death in 4 BC.[5]

Josephus bookends Herod’s final days starting with a lunar eclipse the night he had 40 insurrectionists burned alive and dying just before the Passover that same year meanwhile describing in great detail events that occurred in the interim.[6] Some experts question whether all these things could have occurred in the span of only 4 weeks…

Herod traveled from Jerusalem to Jericho, then to hot springs across the Jordan River, then back to Jericho where he soaked in a vat of oil, all in physician’s attempts to alleviate his gruesome protruding bowels condition. Losing all hope, the King sent letters throughout Judea summoning all principal men to Jericho who arrived before his death.

After a failed suicide attempt, Herod died 5 days later after having his son, Antipater, executed.[7] His funeral in Jericho included international attendees; an elaborate funeral and burial in Herodium which took many days; followed by a 7-day morning period, then a feast for the people of Judea.[8] Could all these things have taken place in just 4 weeks?

Consultant and Biblical hobbyist, David Beyer, compared the 1544 Gutenberg printings of Antiquities to two dozen predated, handwritten manuscripts. He discovered all these handwritten Antiquities manuscripts said that Philip died in the 22nd year of Tiberius, not the 20th year – a discovery that changes the year of Herod’s death to the 2 BC timeframe.[9]

Historian Dr. Gerard Gertoux’s calculation derived similar results. Since Herod was 70 years old when he died, Gertoux determined his death occurred sometime between April, 2 BC, and March, 1 BC.[10]

Another calculation method is based on the Battle of Actium academically recognized as the year 31 BC which Josephus said in Wars of the Jews marked the 7th year of King Herod’s reign thereby backdating to 38 BC. Josephus further recorded that King Herod, like Philip, reigned for 37 years.[11] Simple math places Herod’s death in 1 BC.

One key piece of evidence remains, one that can be verified scientifically. Josephus made reference to a lunar eclipse preceding Herod’s death before he left Jerusalem for the last time.[12]

NASA lunar eclipse data for Jerusalem shows a partial, less-than-half lunar eclipse occurred on March 13th, 4 BC, between 1:32am and 3:50am.[13] Passover that year fell on April 10th, just four weeks later.[14]

Lunar eclipse data from NASA also reveals another fact, a potential game-changer. The next lunar eclipse occurred on January 9, 1 BC, a full eclipse that began over Jerusalem at 10:22pm lasting until 3:53am of January 10th.[15] The Passover that year was observed on April 6th, twelve and half weeks later.[16]

Time intervals between the two eclipses and the Passovers are the critical difference: 4 weeks vs. 12 ½ weeks. Which year timeline can realistically accommodate all that took place between the eclipse and Passover?

Factor in Beyer’s 2-year discrepancy discovery, Gertoux’s calculation and the Battle of Actium calculation, each landing in the 1-2 BC timeframe, all corroborated by NASA’s full lunar eclipse data for January, 1 BC. It poses the obvious question:  did Herod’s death actually occur in 1 BC, not 4 BC? If it did, then Jesus was born was in 2 BC.

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REFERENCES:
[1] Matthew 2. Luke 2.
[2] Gertoux. “Dating the Death of Herod.”  Pages 3-4.  Maier, Paul L. The New Complete Works of Josephus.   Trans. William Whiston.  Grand Rapids, MI:  Kregel Publications. 1999.  Dissertation 5, Appendix #38.  Google Books.  n.d. <http://books.google.com/books?id=kyaoIb6k2ccC&lpg=PP1&dq=the%20complete%20works%20of%20josephus&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false >  Ramsay. Was Christ Born in Bethlehem? Chapter 11 & end note.
[3] Josephus.  Antiquities of the Jews. Book XVII, Chapter XII; Book XVIII, Chapters V.
[4] Josephus.  Antiquities of the Jews. Book XVIII, Chapters IV.
[5] Whiston. The Works of Flavius Josephus, the Learned and Authentic Jewish Historian.” 1850. p 349 footnote.  <https://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&hl=en#v=snippet&q=349&f=false>  Bernegger, P.M. “Affirmation of Herod’s Death in 4 B.C.” Journal of Theological Studies. 1983. Vol. 34, no 2, pp 526-531, <http://www.redatedkings.com/postings/Bernegger.pdf>  Schurer, Emil.  A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ. 1890. Volume 1, pp 464-465, footnote 165.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=BRynO3W9FPcC&pg=PP1#v=snippet&q=Tiberius&f=false>  Doig, Kenneth F.  New Testament Chronology. 1990. Chapter  4. <http://nowoezone.com/NT_Chronology.htm
[6] Josephus, Flavius.  Antiquities of the Jews. Book VII, Chapter VI – IX. The Complete Works of Josephus. 1850.  Google Books. n.d <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>  Josephus, Flavius.  Wars of the Jews. Chapter XXXIII; Book II, Chapter I. The Complete Works of Josephus. 1850.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false
[7] Josephus.  Antiquities.  Book XVII, Chapter VI-VII. Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII.[8] Josephus.  Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapters VII-VIII.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII; Book II, Chapter I. Whiston. The Works of Flavius Josephus, the Learned and Authentic Jewish Historian.” 1850. p 450, footnote.  <https://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&hl=en#v=snippet&q=349&f=false>  “Highways and Roads of Palestine.” 2017. Map. Bible-history.com. <http://www.bible-history.com/geography/ancient-israel/israel-first-century.html>  San José, Juan Antonio Revilla. “On the Year of Herod’s Death.”  A partial translation from “La Fecha de Muerte de Herodes y La Estrella de Belén.” 1999.  Astrology of the New Centaurs.  <http://www.expreso.co.cr/centaurs/steiner/herod.html Smallwood, E. Mary.  The Jews Under Roman Rule: From Pompey to Diocletian. 2nd Ed. 1981. p 104, footnote 158. <http://books.google.com/books?id=jSYbpitEjggC&lpg=PA151&ots=VWqUOinty4&dq=census%20Syria%20Rome&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false>  Reinhold, Roy A. “Other Scholarship Proving the Exact Date of Birth of Yeshua (Jesus), part 5.” Codes in the Bible. 2001. <http://www.ad2004.com/Biblecodes/articles/yeshuabirth5.html Jesus of Nazareth.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/8616-jesus-of-nazareth> Beyer, David W.  “Josephus Reexamined:  Unraveling the Twenty-Second Year of Tiberius.” 1998. p 88. Chronos, Kairos, Christos II. Ed. Jerry Vardaman.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=mWnYvI5RdLMC&lpg=PP1&dq=isbn%3A0865545820&pg=PA85#v=snippet&q=beyer&f=false>  Gertoux, Gerard. “Dating the death of Herod.” 2015 Academia.edu. <http://www.academia.edu/2518046/Dating_the_death_of_Herod
[9] Beyer.  “Josephus Reexamined.” pp 86-87, 90-93, 95-96.  Wolfram, Chuck.  “The Herodian Dynasty.” 2004. <http://web.archive.org/web/20151013221102/http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cwolfram/herod Martin, Ernest L. The Star of Bethlehem – The Star That Astonished the World. 2nd Ed. 2003. Chapter 13. A.S.K. (Associates for Scriptural Knowledge.  <http://web.archive.org/web/20170917115234/http://www.askelm.com/star/star015.htm>
[10] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XV, Chapter V, Book XVII, Chapters VI – Chapter VIII.  Josephus.  Wars.  Book I, Chapter XXXIII.  “The Naval Battle of Actium.”  Livius.org. Ed. Jona Lendering. 2017. <http://www.livius.org/aa-ac/actium/actium.html>  “King Herod the Great.” Livius.org. 2017. <http://www.livius.org/he-hg/herodians/herod_the_great01.html>  “The Actium Project.” New World Encyclopedia. The University of South Florida and the Greek Ministry of Culture. Dir. William M. Murray.  Research Project. 1997.  <http://luna.cas.usf.edu/~murray/actium/brochure.html>  Chesser, Preston. “The Battle of Actium.” Ohio State University. 2002. <http://ehistory.osu.edu/articles/battle-actium>  Gertoux. “Dating the Death of Herod.” pp 6, 9, 11.  “HEROD I. (surnamed the Great).” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011.  <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7598-herod-i>  Villalba i Varneda, Pere. The Historical Method of Flavius Josephus. 1986. p14.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=kdUUAAAAIAAJ&lpg=PA14&ots=2ek7SgCy2c&dq=josephus%2C%20battle%20of%20actium%2C%20herod&pg=PA14#v=onepage&q=josephus,%20battle%20of%20actium,%20herod&f=false>  Bernegger. “Affirmation of Herod’s Death in 4 B.C.”  San José, Juan Antonio Revilla. “On the Year of Herod’s Death.” Pages 14, 140.  “World History 50-0 BC.”  HistoryCentral.com.   MultiEducator, Inc.  n.d. <http://www.historycentral.com/dates/50bc.html
[11] Josephus. Antiquities.  Book XVII. Chapter VII.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII; Book II, Chapter XIX.  “Augustus.”  UNRV History |The Roman Empire. United Nations of Roma Victrix. 2017.  <http://www.unrv.com/fall-republic/augustus.php>  “Did Caesar and Cleopatra really have a son?” The Ancient Standard. 2010. <http://ancientstandard.com/2010/12/03/did-caesar-and-cleopatra-really-have-a-son
[12] Josephus. Antiquities. Book VII, Chapter VII.4.
[13] Espenak, Fred.  NASA Lunar Eclipse Website. 2007.  Asia and Asia Minor – Jerusalem, Israel; Century Selection -0001 – 0100.  <https://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/JLEX/JLEX-AS.html>
[14] Martin. The Star of Bethlehem.  Chapter 13. Bernegger. “Affirmation of Herod’s Death in 4 B.C.”
[15] Espenak. NASA Eclipse Website. Asia and Asia Minor – Jerusalem, Israel. Century Selection -0001 – 0100. Espenak, Fred.  “Six Millennium Catalog of Phases of the Moon.”  NASA Eclipse Website. n.d. Phase years Table 
“-0099 – 0000.” <https://archive.is/UsEwe>
[16] Kidger, Mark R.  “The Date of Passover 11BC – 10AD.”  <http://www.observadores-cometas.com/cometas/Star/Passover.html>  Reinhold.  “Other Scholarship Proving the Exact Date of Birth of Yeshua (Jesus), part 5.”

Micah’s Unique Messiah Requirement

Micah the prophet is known for a single Messiah prophecy, one that is unique. Prophecies about the Messiah are rarely as clear and specific as Micah’s.

Rarer still perhaps is anything that is common ground to those of great religious opposition. Strange bedfellows agree both on who the prophecy is about and the exact place where it is to be fulfilled. Image, a preeminent Jewish Rabbi sage; a powerful and ruthless King; Jewish scriptural experts from the era of Jesus; a Jewish religious academy of antiquity; and both Jewish and Christian Bible translations, all of one accord on this prophecy:

Micah 5:2 ( 5:1 in Jewish Bibles):

But thou, Beth-lehem Ephrathah, which art little to be among the thousands of Judah, out of thee shall one come forth unto Me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old, from ancient days.– Jewish Publication Society[1]

And thou, Bethleem, house of Ephratha, art few in number to be reckoned among the thousands of Juda; yet out of thee shall one come forth to me, to be a ruler of Israel; and his goings forth were from the beginning, even from eternity.– Septuagint LXX[2]

But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, Yet out of you shall come forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, From everlasting.– New King James Version[3]

Not appearing in either Christian or Jewish Bible translations is the word “Messiah.” That is because Mashiach, the word for Messiah, does not appear in the Hebrew text.

One exception is Targum Jonathan, the Aramaic Talmud translation once recited side-by-side with the actual Hebrew text to the Jewish synagogue congregations.[4]  Mashiach is used in the translation based on the context of the prophecy (as translated into English): [5]

“Out of thee Bethlehem shall Mashiach go forth before me, to exercise dominion over Israel. Whose name has been spoken of Old from the day of Eternity.”

Translators rely on context during the translation process, especially with ancient Hebrew.[6] Who is the identity of the future Ruler of Israel to be sent by God “Whose name has been spoken of Old from the day of Eternity”? Answering a question with a question – is this a characteristic of a mortal?

Renowned Jewish sage Rabbi Rashi is greatly revered for his commentaries on the Talmud and its Mishnah. Rashi’s phrase-by-phrase breakdown of Micah 5:1 (5:2) is quoted from The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary: [7]

And you, Bethlehem Ephrathah”: [Rashi:] whence David emanated, as it is stated (I Sam. 17:58): “The son of your bondsman, Jesse the Bethlehemite.” And Bethlehem is called Ephrath, as it is said (Gen. 48:7): “On the road to Ephrath, that is Bethlehem.”  

“you should have been the lowest of the clans of Judah”: [Rashi:] You should have been the lowest of the clans of Judah because of the stigma of Ruth the Moabitess in you.  

“from you shall emerge for Me”: [Rashi:] the Messiah, son of David, and so Scripture says (Ps. 118:22): “The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone.”  

“and his origin is from of old”: [Rashi:] “Before the sun his name is Yinnon” (Ps. 72:17).

Rabbi Rashi said the Messiah would come from Bethlehem Ephrathah, the home town of Jesse, King David’s father.[8] The Rabbi took the opportunity to reflect his distaste of Ruth, a Gentile from Bethlehem. Rashi identified the future ruler of Israel to be “the Messiah, Son of David” named “Yinnon,” a Hebrew epithet meaning “be continued.”[9]

After the Magi appeared at King Herod’s palace in search of the newborn King of the Jews saying they had seen his star, Herod immediately consulted all the Jewish religious experts asking where Christos (Greek for Messiah) was to be born. The chief priests and scribes told the King of Micah’s prophecy saying the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem Ephrathah.[10]

Herod not only believed the prophecy, he believed it had been fulfilled sending the Magi to Bethlehem to find the newborn King of the Jews. He believed it so much, according to Matthew, that when the Magi didn’t return to tell him where to find the child, Herod slaughtered the children 2 years and younger in the Bethlehem district in an attempt to eliminate the threat to his throne.

As a contemporary of the more famous prophet Isaiah, lesser known is Micah’s preceding judgment prophecies of utter destruction against Samaria and Jerusalem predicting they would be taken away by Babylon and the Temple would be destroyed. Corroborating his Bethlehem prophecy, he singled out 10 towns and cities by name, including Jerusalem, that would experience God’s wrath – Bethlehem was not one of them.[11]

Bethlehem Ephrathah, instead, was to be an exception. After the judgement of Israel, God promised to restore Jerusalem and the Temple where the little town of Bethlehem would play a prominent role. It is in that context the very first word in the Hebrew text of the Micah 5:2 prophecy, is ‘attah, meaning “you.”[12]

Micah exclaims “you, Bethlehem Ephrathah” emphasized as if pointing a finger at Bethlehem. He then sets the magnitude of his prophecy saying that, although insignificant in the land of Judah, from you a future Ruler of Israel shall come forth “Whose name has been spoken of Old from the day of Eternity.”

Micah’s Messiah requirement prophecy is used as a litmus test by Jews and Christians alike to rule in or out anyone thought to be the Messiah. Jesus of Nazareth was born in Bethlehem. No other person purporting to be the Messiah has been born in Bethlehem. What is the probability that Jesus is the fulfillment of Micah’s prophecy? 

REFERENCES:

[1] Jewish Publication Society (JPS) translation. 1917. “Micah.” <http://www.breslov.com/bible/Micah5.htm#3>
[2] English Translation of the Greek Septuagint Bible. Trans. Brenton, Lancelot C. L. 1851.  “Michaeas (Micah).” <http://www.ecmarsh.com/lxx/Michaeas/index.htm>
[3] Net.bible.org. “Micah 5:2.” <http://classic.net.bible.org/verse.php?book=Mic&chapter=5&verse=2>
[4] “Targum.”  Jewish Encyclopedia.  2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14248-targum>Targum Jonathan to the Prophets. n.d. “The Historical Background of the Targm Jonathan,” #47, #79. <https://archive.org/stream/targumjonathant00churgoog/targumjonathant00churgoog_djvu.txt>
[5] Prasch, Jacob. “Jesus in the Talmud.”  Moriel.org. 2015. <https://www.moriel.org/sermons-in-english/5952-jesus-in-the-talmud.html>   “Prophecies of the Messiah – His Birthplace.” Israelite. 2012. <http://www.israelight.org.au/~israelig/?page_id=676>
Deem, Rich.  “Jesus Christ – Messiah of the Rabbinical Writer.” 2011. <http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/messiah.html> Book of Matthew Study.  “Matthew 2:1-23.”  Yasha Net Studies.  3 Mar. 2000. <http://www.yashanet.com/studies/matstudy/mat5.htm>   Killian, Greg (Hillel ben David).  “Bethlehem – Beit Lechem – The House of Bread.”  Betemunah.org.  n.d. <http://www.betemunah.org/bethlehem.html>  “Targum.”  Jewish Encyclopedia.  2011.  “Historical Jewish Sources.” The Preterist Archive. “Overview:  About Targums.”  n.d. <http://www.preteristarchive.com/BibleStudies/JewishSources/Targums/index.html>
[6] Benner, Jeff A.  “Introduction to the Hebrew Bible.” Ancient Hebrew Research Center.  2013.  <http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/2_bible.html
[7] Bolding and brackets added by author.  The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.  Micah – Chapter 5. http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16191>
[8] Yinon (Yinnon).”  eTeacherHebrew.com.  2014.  <http://eteacherhebrew.com/Hebrew-Names/yinon-yinnonInterlinear Bible.  Psalms 72:17. Hebrew text. BibleHub.com. 2017. <http://biblehub.com/interlinear>
[9] CR Genesis 48:7.
[10] Matthew 2.
[11] Micah 1. Gath, Beth Leaphrah, Shaphir, Aaanan, Beth Ezel, Maroth, Jerusalem, Lachish, Achzib, and Mareshah.
[12] Net.bible.org. Micah 5:2, Hebrew text.

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