What Signs Did the Magi See As “His Star”?

Magi saw “His star” signaling the birth of the “King of the Jews” – something so moving they walked hundreds of miles to “worship” him. What did the Magi see? Clearly, in the Jesus of Nazareth Nativity as described by Matthew, the Magi had read signs in the night sky saying to King Herod:

MT 2:1-2 “…‘Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the East and have come to worship Him.’” (NASB, NKJV)

MT 2:9-10 “…behold, the star which they had seen in the East went before them…When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy. (NKJV)

Astrology, astronomy or was it something else?[1] Astrology is the belief that celestial bodies influence a person’s journey in life where horoscopes define a personality, successes, sorrows, challenges – a life’s destiny.[2] Astronomy is a science where positions of stars and planets follow a predictive path that can be charted past, present and future – no mystical meaning in the science.[3]

Zoroastrian theology of the Magi did not believe astrology determined a person’s future, rather a person’s spirit was chosen through a chain of decisions by the age of 15. It was a freewill choice result.[4] On the other hand, the Magi believed every planet has a significance.[5]

Going back millennia from the Assyrians and Babylonians down through the Greeks and Romans, planet-stars and certain fixed stars had names of gods varing by culture and language.[6] As these symbolic celestial bodies moved through the night sky, stargazer Magi viewed their interactions as having earthly significance.[7] Through a series of signs a story unfolded where one sign was associated with the next ultimately portraying a particular outcome.[8]

Unknown to many, Hebrew scholars have long accepted a belief that during creation God instilled the 12 constellations with influences in world events.[9] Man abused this knowledge by worshiping the stars instead of God thus He made it a forbidden practice.[10]

“The study of the universe as a whole was, like all other sciences in olden times, held in closest connection with religion, and was cultivated in the interest of the latter. The starworld was to the heathen an object of worship, but not to the Jews, whether national or Hellenized. With this reverence there was connected a superstition that the stars determined the destiny of man…It is obvious, therefore, that the Astronomy of the Talmudists [Jewish biblical sages] could not be an independent science any more than that of the Babylonians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, or of all other nations of antiquity or of the medieval ages: it was a department of knowledge belonging to theology.”[11] –Jewish Encyclopedia

Knowing how the Magi and the Hebrews viewed the constellations, the planets, their meaning and significance of their interactions serves as a key to solving the mystery of “His star.” By tying this information to the incredible factual astronomy events that played out on the night’s stage during the final years of the BC era, several theories  emerge that could possibly identify the star.

One is the comet star theory when two comets were observed, first in 5 BC lasting for 70 days and then a second tailless comet visible during a single night on April 24, 4 BC.[12] Another theory cites ancient Chinese records telling of a nova burst in the constellation Aquila the Eagle in 5 BC.

The comet theory has to overcome the fact that these were distinctly two very different visual events – one comet with a tail lasting for weeks; the other without a tail lasting for a single night. A nova is an explosion of a star creating a temporary brightening of the star before it fades back to a fainter state.[13] The nova theory is challenging in that it was a one-star, one-time event.

A popular theory is based on a series of conjunctions during the 7-6 BC timeframe involving very close proximity Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunctions. The trifecta took place inside the constellation Pisces, the Fish, on May 29, September 29 and December 5 of 7 BC and was followed by a massing of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn in 6 BC.[14] Jupiter and Saturn also twice came into close conjunction with the Moon.[15] Problematic for this scenario is that it does not offer an explanation for a single “star” having to rely heavily on astrological interpretation.

Rarity would be a factor since the Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunction was only the third since 562 BC. The scenario also had Babylonian astrology implications by taking place inside the constellation Pisces known to the Babylonians as Nunu.[16]

Pisces the Fish constellation, considered to be the house of Jupiter, is associated with water and rain making the Earth fruitful.[17] In the Hebrew Zodiac, Pisces is the twelfth sign called Dagim that falls in the twelfth Jewish month of Adar, and is one of the three constellations of the East.[18] Dagim represents fertility and pregnancy; a blessing. Adar is the month of joy holding the last holiday of the year, Purim, the celebration of hidden miracles and sets the stage for the month Nisan and the Passover.[19]

One starry scenario theory took place in 3-2 BC hitting squarely on several points, one that provides an astronomy science explanation for “His star;” matches the 2 BC timeline for the Caesar Augustus Pater Patriae registration decree; and deftly fits with the Magi’s view of cosmic signs. Seven extraordinarily close-proximity conjunctions tell an intriguing allegorical story that cannot be easily ignored.

An 18-month series of rare conjunctions began in 3 BC with the .67˚ Saturn-Mercury conjunction. Saturn was known as Ninib, Babylonian god of fertility, and Mercury as Nebo, “the messenger of the gods,” the god of record-keeping and scribe who delivered messages to the mortals.[20] In this scene, the messenger to mortals and the scribe record-keeper god met with the fertility god.

Three weeks later came the .12˚ conjunction between Saturn and Venus who was the Babylonian’s divine personification of the goddess Ishtar, a composite goddess who had many attributes. Venus was the queen of heaven, the mother goddess, the goddess of love, marriage and childbirth.[21] Here, figuratively the god of fertility had met with the goddess queen.

Two months later, queen Venus made extremely close contact with its .07˚ conjunction with Jupiter, the king planet known to the Babylonians as Marduk, the patron god of creation.[22] The symbolic coming together of the king and queen is modestly obvious. Would the Magi have seen this as the sign of a royal conception? The two would meet again 9 months later.

Perhaps the Wise Men could have chalked this all up to coincidence…until a month later. In just a half-tick of the comic clock, they saw where king Jupiter left his visitation with queen Venus to begin a triple conjunction with the star Regulus.

Considered to be the king of stars that ruled the affairs of the heavens, Regulus was to the Persians the leader of the Four Royal stars, the four Guardians of Heaven.[23] As the brightest and chief star in the center of the constellation Leo the Lion, Regulus was known as the Heart of the Lion.[24] The star’s Babylonian name was “Sharru,” meaning the ‘breast, heart’ of the lion; in Hebrew, Sharru-ukin means “king; legitimate, true.”[25]

Leo is considered to be a royal constellation because of its status at the head of the Zodiac calendar dominated by king star Regulus and its direct path to the sun.[26] Well-known to the stargazers of the ancient world, Leo was called “Ser” or “Shī” by the Persians and “Arū” by the Babylonians, all meaning Lion.[27]

Over the next eight months since the Jupiter-Venus conjunction, Jupiter’s triple conjunction path revolved around Regulus where, in essence, the king planet circled a ring around the king star of the heavens. Taking place in the heart of Leo the Lion, the natal sign of Judah, this triple conjunction may have signaled the Magi where to find the newborn king of Israel.[28]

Jupiter moved from circling Regulus directly back to a reunion with Venus, 9 months since the last, for the striking appearance of a partial overlapping conjunction on June 17, 2 BC. Not a surprise to the Magi who would have anticipated its appearance, yet if this second Jupiter-Venus Conjunction was the second appearance of “His star” while the Magi were in Jerusalem, they reacted with “exceedingly great joy” when they actually saw it.

Appearing unannounced at the palace of Herod, the King did not question the declaration of the Magi whose centuries old reputation preceded them – renowned for their expertise in reading the stars and, according to Plato, as “king makers.”[29] Herod acted on the Magi’s information as fact, consulted with Jewish religious experts on prophecy, then focused his attention on Bethlehem wanting to know when “His star” had appeared.

Was the sign of “His Star” announced by the Magi to King Herod in his Judean palace actually the conjunctions of Jupiter and Venus in 3 and 2 BC?

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[1] Clevenger, John. “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.”  Lake County (Illinois) Astronomical Society. 2012. <http://www.lcas-astronomy.org/articles/display.php?filename=the_christmas_star&category=miscellaneous>
[2] “astrology.” Merriam-Webster. 2018. <https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/astrology> “astrology.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/topic/astrology>
[3] “astronomy.” Merriam-Webster. 2018. <https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/astronomy> “astronomy.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/science/astronomy>  Redd, Nola Taylor. Space.com. 2017. <https://www.space.com/16014-astronomy.html>
[4] Eduljee, K. E. “Is Zoroastrianism a Religion, Philosophy, Way-of-Life…? The Spirit.” Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/05/is-zoroastrianism-religion-philosophy.html>  Eduljee, K. E.  “Introduction. Zoroastrianism & Astrology.” n.d. <http://zoroastrianastrology.blogspot.com/>
[5] “Every Planet Has a Meaning.” Magi Society. Lesson 3. 2008. <http://www.magiastrology.com/lesson1.html>
[6]   Eduljee, K. E. “Zoroastrian-Persian Influence on Greek Philosophy and Sciences.”  Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/04/zoroastrian-influence-on-greek.html>  Eduljee, K. E. “Astrology & Zoroastrianism,” Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/04/astrology-zoroastrianism.html>
[7] Eduljee, K. E. “Greek Perceptions of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism & the Magi.” #2, #33. Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/04/greek-perceptions-of-zoroaster.html> “Magi Astronomy.” Magi Society. 2008. <http://www.magiastrology.com/lesson3.html> Humphreys, Colin J. “The Star of Bethlehem – a Comet in 5 BC – And the Date and Birth of Christ.” pp 390-391. SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). 1991. <http://adsbit.harvard.edu//full/1991QJRAS..32..389H/0000391.000.html>
[8] Dickinson, David. “Is This Month’s Jupiter-Venus Pair Really a Star of Bethlehem Stand In?” Universe Today. October 14, 2015. <https://www.universetoday.com/122738/is-this-months-jupiter-venus-pair-really-a-star-of-bethlehem-stand-in/>  Roberts, Courtney. The Star of the Magi: The Mystery That Heralded the Coming of Christ. pp. 70-71. <https://books.google.com/books?id=480FI6lj3UkC&pg=PA145&lpg=PA145&dq=magi+signs+in+the+sky&source=bl&ots=wQlvIonSLe&sig=yX-toR4CMY1JnebNxQjvYVpHHnc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj9vsaQlonfAhUInKwKHYG5D144FBDoATABegQICBAB#v=onepage&q=magi&f=false>
[9] “Astrology.” Jewish Virtual Library. 2008. <https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/astrology>  Jacobs, Lewis. “Jewish Astrology.” My Jewish Learning. 2018. <https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/jewish-astrology/> “Jewish Calendar: Months of the Jewish Year.” Bukharian Jews USA. 2010. Matrix: “Hebrew Months and the Zodiac.” <http://www.bjewsusa.com/jewish_calendar_03.htm>  Borschel-Dan, Amanda. “As planets align, some see return of Jesus’ Star of Bethlehem.” Times of Israel. 26 October 2015. < https://www.timesofisrael.com/as-planets-align-some-see-return-of-jesus-star-of-bethlehem/>
[10] Deuteronomy 4:19.  “Astronomy.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2052-astronomy>  “star-worship.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13990-star-worship>  Krane, Lloyd. “Adar and the signs of the Zodiac.” Jewish Magazine. 2008.  <http://www.jewishmag.com/121mag/adar-mazel-sign/adar-mazel-sign.htm>
[11] Bold text and brackets added by author. “astronomy.”  Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011.
[12] Everitt, Henry.  “The Star of Bethlehem – A Chronology of the Life of Jesus.” Duke University|Department of Physics. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 32, p. 389 (1991).  <http://www.phy.duke.edu/~everitt/StarofBethlehem.pdf>  Strobel, Nick. “The Star of Bethlehem – An Astronomical Perspective.” Astronomy Notes. 2011. <http://www.astronomynotes.com/history/bethlehem-star.html>  “Star of Bethlehem may have been planets Jupiter and Venus.”. IU News Room. Dec. 2003.  <http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/1203.html&t=Star%20of%20Bethlehem%20may%20have%20been%20planets%20Jupiter%20and%20Venus>  Mosley, John. “Common Errors in ‘Star of Bethlehem’ Planetarium Shows.” International Planetarium Society Inc. Reprinted from the Planetarian. 1981. <http://www.ips-planetarium.org/?page=a_mosley1981>  Humphreys, Colin J. “The Star of Bethlehem – a Comet in 5 BC – And the Date and Birth of Christ.” pp 390-391.
[13] “Star of Bethlehem may have been planets Jupiter and Venus.” IU News Room.
[14] “Star of Bethlehem may have been planets Jupiter and Venus.” IU News Room.  Mosley. “Common Errors in ‘Star of Bethlehem’ Planetarium Shows.”  Clevenger, John.  “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.”  Greetham, Phil. The Nativity Pages. 2005. Index. <https://web.archive.org/web/20121011231348/http://www.btinternet.com/~prgreetham/Wisemen/theory.html>  “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.”  Flescher, Eric and Sessions, Larry. “Ten ‘Star’ of Bethlehem Myths: Part II.” Space.com. 2001. <http://web.archive.org/web/20041205014757/http://space.com:80/SpaceReportersNetworkAstronomyDiscoveries/flescher_Xmasstar2_122601.html>
[15] Molnar, Michael R. “Revealing the Star of Bethlehem.” 2015.  <https://web.archive.org/web/20160624012358/http://www.eclipse.net/~molnar/>  Clevenger. “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.” Pratt, John P.  “The Star of Bethlehem’s Forerunner.” JohnPratt.com. Reprinted from Meridian Magazine. 2000.  <http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/meridian/2000/xmas_star.html> Fazekas, Andrew. “Christmas Star Mystery Continues.” National Geographic Daily News. 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20170808084630/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/12/081224-star-bethlehem.html>
[16] Kidger, Mark R.  The Star of Bethlehem: an Astronomer’s View. 1999. pp 254-256. <http://books.google.com/books?id=_ISv1gPQJV4C&lpg=PA25&ots=WsfPW9KFFR&dq=anatole%2C%20greek%2C%20magi&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=anatole,20greek,%20magi&f=false>  MacKenzie, Donald A. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. 1915. Chapter XIII. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/mba/mba19.htm>  “Marduk.” New World Encyclopedia. 2014. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Marduk>  “Marduk.”  The 1911 Classic Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Marduk> Leverington, David. Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy. 2003. Chapter 1.2.  <http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/08408/sample/9780521808408ws.pdf>  “Ancient Assyrian/Babylonian Cuneiform.” Virtualsecrets.com. n.d.  <http://www.virtualsecrets.com/assyrian.html> Allen, Richard Hinckley. Star Names and Their Meanings. pp 337, 341. 1899.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=5xQuAAAAIAAJ&dq=Hinckley%2C%20Star%20Names%20and%20Their%20Meanings&pg=PP2#v=onepage&q=Hinckley,%20Star%20Names%20and%20Their%20Meanings&f=false> Rosenberg.  The “Star of the Messiah” Reconsidered. pp 105-106.  Nolle, Richard. “The Jupiter-Saturn Conjunction.” Astropro.com. 1998. <http://www.astropro.com/features/tables/geo/ju-sa/ju000sa.html>;
[17] Rosenberg.  The “Star of the Messiah” Reconsidered. p 106.
[18] “The Month of Adar.” Bukharian Jews USA. 2010. <http://www.bjewsusa.com/jewish_calendar_03_12.htm>  Ullman, Yirmiyahu. “The Zodiac.” Ohr Somayach Tanenbaum College.  26 Nov. 2005.  <http://ohr.edu/yhiy/article.php/2394>  “Adar.”  International Center for Tzfat Kabbalah. Tzfat-Kabbalah.org.  n.d. <http://www.tzfat-kabbalah.org/whatis.asp?p=510>  “Pisces.” Dictionary.com. 2018. <https://www.dictionary.com/browse/pisces>  Ford, Dominic. “The Constellation Pisces.” In-The-Sky.org. 2018. <https://in-the-sky.org/data/constellation.php?id=67>  “astronomy.” Jewish Encyclopedia.
[19] “Jewish Calendar:  Months of the Jewish Year.” Bukharian Jews USA.  Dovid, Avrohom. “Almanac of Important Jewish and Biblical Dates.” ThirdTemple.com. “Adar.’” n.d.  <http://www.thirdtemple.com/JewishTime/adar.html>  Heller, Rebbetzin Tzipporah. “The Choice of Adar.” n.d. <http://www.aish.com/h/pur/b/The_Choice_of_Adar.html>  “Adar.”  International Center for Tzfat Kabbalah.  “Purim.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/12448-purim>
[20] “Mesopotamia.” Messenger|MEcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging. 2014. http://archive.is/kBVO>  Cain, Fraser. “How Did Mercury Get Its Name ?”  Universe Today. 2010.  <http://www.universetoday.com/66432/how-did-mercury-get-its-name>  Leverington. Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy. Chapter 1.2. “Ancient Assyrian/Babylonian Cuneiform.”  Virtualsecrets.com.
[21] MacKenzie. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria.  Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings. p 274.  “Venus.” Myth Encyclopedia.  Myths and Legends of the World. 2014.  <http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Tr-Wa/Venus.html>  Leverington.  “Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy. Chapter 1.2.  McCormack.  “Ancient Assyrian/Babylonian Cuneiform.”
[22] MacKenzie,  Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. Chapter XIII.   “Marduk.”  New World Encyclopedia.  “Marduk.”  The 1911 Classic Encyclopedia.   Leverington. Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy. Chapter 1.2.   McCormack. “Ancient Assyrian/Babylonian Cuneiform.”  “Jupiter.”  WyzAnt.com. 2014. <http://www.wyzant.com/resources/lessons/english/etymology/planets/jupiter>
[23] Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings. pp 255-257.   Olcott, William Tyler.  Star Lore of All Ages. 1911.  Reprinted 2017. pp 233-238.  Google Books. <http://books.google.com/books?id=PN7JxXoB1c8C&lpg=PP1&ots=SRZwDRc6dW&dq=Star%20Lore%20of%20All%20Ages&pg=PA233#v=onepage&q=&f=false>  Kaulins, Andis. “MUL.APIN – Sumerian Akkadian Astronomy.” LexiLine: History of Civilization. Section #13. 2013. <http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi182.htm>
[24] Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings.  pp 256-257.
[25] Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings. pp 255.  Olcott.  Star Lore of All Ages. p 237.
“Regulus.” Constellation Guide. 2015. <https://www.constellation-guide.com/regulus/> “Sargon.” Behind the Name. 2018. <https://www.behindthename.com/name/sargon>
[26] Martin.  The Star of Bethlehem. Chapter 1.  Pratt, John P.  “Coordinates for the Constellations.” JohnPratt.com. 2001. <http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/sidereal/sidereal.html>  Martin.  The Star of Bethlehem. Chapter 1. Olson, Ross.“Summary of Conjunctions of Planets (“wandering stars”).” 1997.  Twin Cities Creation Science Association. n.d. < http://www.tccsa.tc/articles/star_dates.html>  Olcott.  Star Lore of All Ages. pp 236-237.
[27] Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings.  p253.
[28] Genesis 49:8-10; Numbers 23:3-9, 21-24.  Strobel. “The Star of Bethlehem – An Astronomical Perspective.”  Carroll. “The Star of Bethlehem: An Astronomical and Historical Perspective.”
[29] Plato. Republic. Book 9, Section 572e. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0168:book=9:section=572e&highlight=magi>

Daniel, Chief of Wise Men – Was Daniel a Hebrew Magi?

Magi from the East, known by a name that is the root word for “magic,” seems at complete odds with a Jewish Messiah story about Jesus of Nazareth. Behind the curtains, was there a connection to these Magi through Daniel?

King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had wiped out Jerusalem, raided the Temple, and ended the House of David’s succession of sitting kings. Treasures taken as spoils of war included Hebrew people with particular qualities.[1]

One such selected captive was named Daniel who, along with three other Hebrew captivities, was chosen to be educated for three years in the exclusive Babylonian school of Chaldeans in preparation for service to the King. They would become part of an eclectic group of royal wise men that included “the magicians, the astrologers, the sorcerers, and the Chaldeans,” the fraternity known as the chakkiym.”[2]

Two Aramaic words exclusively appear in the Bible only in the first five chapters of the Book of Daniel, kisday and chakkiym.[3] Aramaic kisday has the same meaning as the Hebrew Kisdiy – the “Clod-breakers.” Chakkiym literally means “wise men” or simply “wise.”[4]

One day Nebuchadnezzar challenged the chakkiym to interpret his dream. Gladly, they agreed once Nebuchadnezzar revealed his dream. The king was suspicious of their abilities – if they truly had mystical powers, then they should be able to know the dream itself as well as its interpretation. Nebuchadnezzar commanded failure to do both would result in their dismemberment and destruction of their homes.

Realizing they were backed into a corner, these royal wise men informed the King that his request was impossible because no one could do what he was asking. In a fit of rage, Nebuchadnezzar ordered all the chakkiym in the kingdom to be executed.

All this was unknown to Daniel until Arioch, captain of the King’s guard, came to arrest and execute him as one of the kingdom’s chakkiym. Surprised by this nasty turn of events, Daniel asked Arioch for details, then convinced Arioch to allow him to approach the King. A day’s reprieve was granted by Nebuchadnezzar and that night Daniel and his friends prayed for the dream revelations.

The next day Daniel approached King Nebuchadnezzar saying, “The secret which the king has demanded, the wise men, the astrologers, the magicians, and the soothsayers cannot declare to the king. But there is a God in heaven who reveals secrets…”

In answer to his prayers Daniel was able to reveal the King’s dream and its interpretation because God gave “Daniel understanding in all visions and dreams.” Nebuchadnezzar was completely humbled, bowing down to Daniel, rewarding him with riches and making him head of all the kingdom’s chakkiym. In Jeremiah, the chief position of the wise men was called a Rab-mag.[5]

Handwriting on the wall appearing in Belshazzar’s palace was the last time chakkiym appears in the Bible. At the urging of Belshazzar’s wife, Daniel was summoned to interpret the message. It said the Medes and Persians would overthrow the Babylonian kingdom – it happened that very night.[6]

Cyrus, king of the Medes and Persians, espoused Zoroastrianism as the main religion in his Empire.[7] Zoroastrian priests known as Magi, considered to be wise men, held great royal influence.[8]

Chaldean wise men’s mystical abilities meshed well with the mystic aptitudes of the Magi. Daniel’s supernatural abilities of interpreting visions and prophecies valued by kings continued under Cyrus and Darius.[9]

Daniel, the Hebrew wise man of Babylon, was assigned by Darius as one of three top government positions over the satraps – province governors and chiefs.[10] His two Median-Persian counterparts conspired to have Daniel eliminated, the pretext for the famous story, Daniel in the Lion’s Den. Unscathed, Daniel survived the lion’s den while his two rivals met the terrifying fate intended for Daniel.

Authors, teachers and Philosophers of the Hellenistic age produced many writings by noted Greek historians and philosophers giving additional insights to these mysterious wise men.[11] Accounts about the Chaldeans and the Magi reveal striking similarities.

Herodotus (c. 484-420), a Greek historian, identified the Magi as one of the six Median tribes who had the ability to interpret dreams. Two of his accounts about Cyrus demonstrate the considerable political influences of the Magi in the affairs of rulers.[12]

Median King Astyages, who reigned during the same years of the Babylonian Empire, consulted Magi to interpret dreams about his daughter. The Magi’s interpretation said the King’s newborn grandson would rise to rule the kingdom. Alarmed, Astyages tried to thwart this fate by commanding his grandson to be secretly killed…but he didn’t want to know any of the details, only to be advised the deed was done.

Years later in an intriguing turn of events, the boy was surprisingly discovered to be alive by Astyages who then proudly named his grandson Cyrus. At the urging of his Magi advisors, the King sent the young Cyrus away to be raised by his father, Cambyses, in Persia. The fascinating story ends when the Persian Cyrus rose up to overthrow his Median grandfather, but not before Astyages had the Magi impaled who had advised him to send away his grandson to Persia.

Pythagoras (c. 570-499 BC), who wanted to learn their ways, “journeyed among the Chaldaeans and Magi” during a period before Cyrus took Babylon. Democritus (c. 460-370 BC) “was a pupil of certain Magians and Chaldaeans” from whom “he learned theology and astronomy.”[13]

Xenophon (c. 430-350 BC) wrote that under Cyrus, it was “…the first time the college of magi was instituted…” The influences of the Magi, he wrote, “continued in force with each successive king even to this day.” Cyrus is quoted, “set apart for the gods whatever the magi direct, as they interpret the will of the gods.”[14]

Cicero (106-43 BC), famed Roman orator and lawyer, referenced “Dinon’s Persian annals the dreams of that famous prince, Cyrus, and their interpretations by the magi…who are classed as wise and learned men among the Persians…”[15] Note that Cicero spoke in present tense.

In another account about Magi, Herodotus wrote of a pair of Magi who attempted a silent coup of the Persian kingdom through trickery of an imposter king who was a Magus. After 7 months, the Magus imposter was eventually discovered by seven men including Darius who actually became the one who killed the Magus with the assignation leading to the “massacre of the Magi.” Darius was chosen among the seven to become King.[16]

Magians, according to Diogenes (412-320 BC), came from a long line of succession from Zoroaster “down to the conquest of Persia by Alexander” aka Alexander the Great.[17] Making reference to historian Clitarchus, he said, “the Chaldaeans apply themselves to astronomy and forecasting the future; while the Magi spend their time in the worship of the gods, in sacrifices and in prayers…”

Chaldeans were skilled in the science of astronomy, said Diodorus (c. 75-20 BC). They had an extraordinary ability, he wrote, “the Chaldeans in Babylon and the other astrologers succeed in making accurate prophecies.”[18]

Plato (circa 428-347 BC) called the Magi, “king-makers.” He also wrote that a king’s son at the age of 14 is taught “the magian lore of Zoroaster, son of Horomazes; and that is the worship of the gods…”[19]

Parthian Empire, considered by some to be the second Persian Empire, followed the Greek Empire in world history. It coexisted with the Roman Empire at the end of the millennium, though not without wars and confrontations.[20]

Strabo (c. 64 BC-21 AD), who lived at the time Jesus of Nazareth was born, wrote of the wise men of Parthia, “the Council of the Parthians, according to Poseidonius, consists of two groups, one that of kinsmen, and the other that of wise men and Magi, from both of which groups the kings were appointed.”[21] He said:[22]

“And the priests of the Egyptians, the Chaldeans, and Magi, distinguished for their wisdom above those around them, obtained from our predecessors honour and authority…” – Strabo

Magi, renowned for their ability to read the stars, make accurate predictions and reputed for being king-makers, came to the palace of King Herod asking “Where is He who has been born King of the Jews?”[23] Without hesitation, Herod gave them immediate access to his palace and did not question their request.

Was Daniel, a Hebrew, a Magi who were “distinguished for their wisdom above those around them, obtained from our predecessors honour and authority”?


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[1] Daniel 1.
[2] NKJV
[3] Guisepi, Robert. “The Chaldeans, The Chaldeans (Neo-Babylonian) Empire.” International World History Project. Ed. Robert A. Guisepi. 2007. <http://history-world.org/chaldeans.htm> “Chaldea.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/place/Chaldea>
[4] Net.bible.org. Daniel 2. Hebrew text. “kasdiy <03779>;” “kasday <3779>;” “chakkiym <02445><http://lexiconcordance.com>
[5] Jeremiah 39:3, 13.
[6] Daniel 5.  Herodotus. The Histories. 1.191-193; 4.1. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0126%3Abook%3D1%3Achapter%3D1>
[7] “Zoroastrianism.”  ReligionFacts.com. 2018. <http://www.religionfacts.com/zoroastrianism/index.htm> “Zoroastrianism.” PersianEmpire.info. 2007. <http://persianempire.info/zoro.htm>  Hooker, Richard. “Mesopotamia: The Persians.” Washington State University. 1996. <http://web.archive.org/web/20110514001358/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PERSIANS.HTM> “Zoroaster.” Encyclopædia.com. 2016. <https://www.encyclopedia.com/people/philosophy-and-religion/ancient-religion-biographies/zoroaster> Gascoigne, Bamber.  “History of Zoroastrianism.”  HistoryWorld.net. n.d. <http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab71>  “Zoroastrianism.”  BBC|The British Broadcasting Corporation. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian> Eduljee, K. E. “Greek Perceptions of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism & the Magi.” Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/04/greek-perceptions-of-zoroaster.html>  “Zoroastrianism.” BBC|The British Broadcasting Corporation. 2009. “The Archaemenian.”<http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian> Jafarey, Ali Akbar.  “The Achaemenians, Zoroastrians in Transition.”  CAIS|The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies. 1998.  <http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Religions/iranian/Zarathushtrian/achaemenian_zarathushtrian.htm> Soules, Jeremiah. “For the Glory of Ahuramazda:  The Political Effects of Zoroastrianism on Early Achaemenid Persia.” University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire. 2010. pp. 18-21. <http://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/60912?show=full>
[8] Herodotus, The Histories. Book 3, Chapters 30, 60-79. < http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0126:book=3:chapter=30&highlight=smerdis >  Plato. Republic.  Book 9, section 572e. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0168:book=9:section=572e&highlight=magi>
[9] Daniel 6, 9, 10.
[10] Daniel 6. Herodotus. Histories. 3.90. Xenophon. Cyropaedia. 4.5.
[11] Gascoigne, Bamber.   “Iran (Persia) timeline.” HistoryWorld.net. n.d. <http://www.historyworld.net/timesearch/default.asp?conid=static_timeline&timelineid=759&page=1&keywords=Iran+%28Persia%29+timeline> Eduljee. “Greek Perceptions of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism & the Magi.”
[12] “ Herodotus. The Histories.  Book 3, Chapters 30, 60-79. Herodotus. The Histories. Book 1, Chapters 107-122. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0239%3Abook%3D1>  Polybius. Histories. Book 34, Chapter 2. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0234:book=34:chapter=2&highlight=magi>  Herodotus.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/biography/Herodotus-Greek-historian>
[13] Diogenes Laertius. Lives of Eminent Philosophers. 8.1; 9/7. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0258:book=9:chapter=7&highlight=Magians%2C> “Pythagoras.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pythagoras>  “Cyrus takes Babylon.” Livius.org. Ed. Jona Lendering. 2018. <http://www.livius.org/sources/content/herodotus/cyrus-takes-babylon> “Democritus.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/biography/Democritus> Diogenes. Lives. 9.7.
[14] Xenophon. Cyropaedia. Walter Miller, Ed. c.370 BC. 4.5; .8.1. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Xen.+Cyrop.+1.1&fromdoc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0204>   “Xenophon.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/biography/Xenophon>
[15] Cicero, M. Tullius. Divination. Trans. William Armistead Falconer. 44 BC. 1.46. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Cic.+Div.+1.1&fromdoc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2007.01.0043>
[16] Herodotus. Histories. Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. n.d, Book XI, Chapter III. <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[17] Diogenes. Lives. Prologue.  “Cleitarchus.” Livius.org. Ed. Jona Lendering. 2018. <http://www.livius.org/articles/person/cleitarchus>
[18] Diodorus. Library. Prologue; 15.50. “Diodorus Siculus.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/biography/Diodorus-Siculus>
[19] Plato. Republic. Trans.Paul Shorey. 9.572e. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0168%3Abook%3D9%3Asection%3D572e>  Plato. Alcibiades 1. Trans. W.R.M. Lamb. c. 390 AD. 1 121e-1232. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0176%3Atext%3DAlc.%201%3Asection%3D122a>  “Plato.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/biography/Plato>
[20] Lendering, Jona. History of Iran – Parthian Empire. 2018. <http://www.iranchamber.com/history/parthians/parthians.php>
[21] Strabo. The Geography of Strabo. 17-23 AD.  H. L. Jones, ed. 11.9. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0198%3Abook%3D6%3Achapter%3D1%3Asection%3D1>
[22] Strabo. The Geography of Strabo. 17-23 AD.  H. L. Jones, ed. 1.2. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0239:book=1:chapter=2&highlight=magi>
[23] NASB, NKJV.

Magi – Why Are They in a Jewish Nativity Story?

Magi were scorned by Judaism for their mystical reputation.[1] Why then do the mystic Magi appear in Matthew’s account about a Jewish Messiah ? Matthew’s Greek text uses the word magos., the Latin word equivalent to magus, its plural form is magi.[2] The word is sometimes translated into English as “wise men” – both translations are correct.

MT 2:1 “After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem…” (NIV)

MT 2:1 “In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem…” (NRSV)

Clearly not worried his reference to the Magi would be called into question by his contemporaries, Matthew covered the Magi story with 12 verses, at least 10 providing specific details.[3] He assumed his audience would recognize the reputation of the Magi and the significance of their visit to Jerusalem.[4]

Matthew’s introduction of the Magi into the Nativity story has a full historical context behind its setting. Not just anyone appearing on the door step of the King’s palace would expect to gain entry. Yet, when the Magi arrived unannounced, they had no problem gaining direct access to King Herod who gave them his immediate and full attention.

Babylonians, Medes and Persians viewed magos as an eclectic group of priests, physicians, teachers, soothsayers, interpreters of dreams, astrologers, and sorcerers. It is easy to see how magi could be referred to as “wise men” – or just as easily, “mystics.” Not surprisingly, magi is the root word of “magic.”

Roman era Jewish society had a dual-perspective of magi. One was of the famed Hebrew,  Daniel, a captured Israelite of royal descent by Nebuchadnezzar. Daniel was placed into the elite Babylonian school of the Chaldeans which included an education in astronomy and astrology.[5]

God gave “Daniel understanding in all visions and dreams,” a gift that landed him in Nebuchadnezzar’s royal council of wise men, the chakkiym.[6] Later, Nebuchadnezzar made Daniel chief of all the magi, a position known as Rab-mag.[7]

After the Medes and Persians overthrew the Babylonian Empire, Daniel’s “extraordinary spirit” again elevated him to a high level of the government.[8] The main religion under King Cyrus was Zoroastrianism. Its founder, Zoroaster, was himself known as the original magi.[9]

Setting the stage for the other Jewish perspective of magi began when Alexander the Great marched through Judea. The Greek Empire’s open-minded Hellenistic culture allowed the Jews religious freedom, but it also introduced Zoroastrianism intermingled with influences of the Babylonian chakkiym; its priests called magi.[10]

Over the coming decades, the effects of Hellenism on Jewish culture was unavoidable much to the frustration of the Jewish Rabbis. Liberal philosophies of Hellenism permeated Jewish culture meanwhile Greek became the common language.[11] Next came the Roman Empire which was content to leave the prevailing culture in Judea alone.[12]

As expert astronomers, the Magi used the legendary Babylonian astronomical science and charts to study of the motion of stars past, present and future. Their ability to plot upcoming cosmic events were scientifically predictive, not “mystical.”[13]

Toward the very end of the BC era, a series of rare celestial conjunctions occurred, ones hard to ignore by astronomers – then or today. Witnessing just one such rare conjunction can be an once-in-a-lifetime experience. Imagine the scenario where, in a space of just 5 years from 7-2 BC, there were 13 rare conjunctions including two triple conjunctions! [14]

Zoroastrianism beliefs held that celestial events served as signs with earthly significance. Signs of a newborn king observed by the Magi were so awe-inspiring, they set out on a month’s long quest to find and worship him.[15] Matthew does not say there were only three Magi…it is a Christmas legend that may or may not be accurate.

Herod did not question the credibility of the Magi when they gave him the alarming news about the birth of a King of the Jews. Neither did Herod’s Jewish religious council who, instead, pointed the King to Micah’s prophecy saying a Jewish ruler was to be born in Bethlehem.

Believing the prophecy to be true, Herod invited the Magi back for another meeting to investigate the timing of the star, directed them to Bethlehem, and slyly asked for their help in finding this newborn king. Angered when they didn’t return, Herod’s reaction by killing all the children 2 years old and under in the Bethlehem district testifies to his belief in the truth of the Magi’s message about a newborn King of the Jews.

King Herod and his royal Jewish religious council believed the credibility and message of the Magi. How likely is it that the Jewish author of Matthew would unnecessarily introduce the Magi…unless he also believed it to be true?


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[1] Deuteronomy 4, 18.  Soncino Babylonian Talmud.  Sanhedrin 98a. <https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/sanhedrin/sanhedrin_98.html> “Zoroastrianism – Magi.” Geni. 2016. <https://www.geni.com/projects/Zoroastrianism-Magi/13185>
[2] “magus”  WordReference.com. <http://www.wordreference.com/es/translation.asp?tranword=magus> “magi.”  WordReference.com. <http://www.wordreference.com/es/translation.asp?tranword=magi> “magus.” Merriam-Webster <https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/magus>
[3] Matthew 2:1-12.
[4] Martin, Ernest L. The Star of Bethlehem – The Star That Astonished the World. 2017. Chapter 2. A.S.K. (Associates for Scriptural Knowledge. <http://web.archive.org/web/20170226050457/http://www.askelm.com/star/star002.htm>
[5]  Daniel 1. Guisepi, Robert. “The Chaldeans, The Chaldeans (Neo-Babylonian) Empire.” International World History Project.  2007.  <http://history-world.org/chaldeans.htm>  “Chaldea.”  Encyclopædia Britannica. 2014.  <http://www.britannica.com>  “Chaldea.”  Jewish Encyclopedia.  2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/4213-chaldea>
[6]  NKJV.  Daniel 1- 2.  “Magi.” New World Encyclopedia. 2014. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Magi>  Net.bible.org.  Daniel 2:12 Hebrew text “chakkiym” <02445>.  “Chaldea.” Jewish Encyclopedia.  Diodorus of Sicily. Mesopotamia: Ninus, Semiramis, the wonders of Babylon; Sardanapalus, Chaldaean astrology.  Vol. I.  Book II.  University of Chicago|Bill Thayer.  2017.  Page 431 # 24 ; p 447-457 #29-31. <http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Diodorus_Siculus/home.html>
 [7] Jeremiah 39:3, 13.
[8] NASB. Daniel 6, 10-12.  Deuteronomy 4:19.  Gascoigne, Bamber.  “History of Zoroastrianism.”  HistoryWorld.net. n.d.  <http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab71>  “Zoroastrianism – Magi.” Geni. “Daniel, the Magi and the Luni-solar Calendar of Israel.” TryGod.com. 2017. <http://try-god.com/daniel-the-magi-and-the-luni-solar-calendar-of-israel.php
[9]  Zoroastrianism.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/15283-zoroastrianism>  Eduljee, K. E. “Magi – Zoroastrian Priests.”  Zoroastrian Heritage. 2012. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2012/09/magi.html>
[10] “Hellenism.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7535-hellenism>.  Hooker, Richard.  “Alexander the Great – Hellenistic Greece.” Washington State University. 1999. <http://web.archive.org/web/20110104072822/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/ALEX.HTM>  “Zoroastrianism – Magi.”  Geni. “Zoroastrianism.”  BBC|The British Broadcasting Corporation. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian>   Jafarey, Ali Akbar. “The Achaemenians, Zoroastrians in Transition.”  CAIS|The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies. 2015. <http://www.cais-soas.com/CAIS/Religions/iranian/Zarathushtrian/achaemenian_zarathushtrian.htm>  Hooker, Richard.  “Mesopotamia:  The Persians.”  Washington State University. 1996. <http://web.archive.org/web/20110514001358/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/PERSIANS.HTM>  Hooker, Richard.  “Hellenistic Greece:  Hellenism.” Washington State University. 1999. <http://web.archive.org/web/20110104072353/http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/GREECE/HELLGREE.HTM>   “Zoroastrianism.”  ReligionFacts.com. 2014.  <http://www.religionfacts.com/zoroastrianism/index.htm>  Reed, Vicky. “The Religion of the Persian Empire.” EsthersLegacy.com.  2011. <http://estherslegacy.com> “Zoroastrianism.”  PersianEmpire.info. 2007. <http://persianempire.info/zoro.htm>  Gascoigne. “History of Zoroastrianism.”  Gascoigne, Bamber. “Iran (Persia) timeline.” HistoryWorld.net. n.d.  <http://www.historyworld.net/timesearch/default.asp?conid=static_timeline&timelineid=759&page=1&keywords=Iran+%28Persia%29+timeline>  Eduljee. “Greek Perceptions of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism & the Magi.”  Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/04/greek-perceptions-of-zoroaster.html>  Leverington, David. Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy.  Chapter 1. 2003.  <http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/08408/sample/9780521808408ws.pdf>  Diodorus.  Mesopotamia: Ninus, Semiramis, the wonders of Babylon; Sardanapalus, Chaldaean astrology.  Vol.I, Book II. Page 457; #31.
[11] Josephus.  Antiquities of the Jews. Book XII, Chapter II.
[12] Hooker. “Hellenistic Greece:  Hellenism.” Petrucci, Valerio. “Hellenization and Romanization – the Dialogue Between Greek and Roman Cultures in the 1st and 2nd Centuries.” 2017. Academia. <https://www.academia.edu>  “Judaea.” Livius.org. Ed. Jona Lendering. 2019. <https://www.livius.org/articles/place/judaea>
[13] Eduljee. “Greek Perceptions of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism & the Magi.”  Leverington. Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy. Chapter 1.
[14] Carroll, Susan S. “The Star of Bethlehem:  An Astronomical and Historical Perspective.” Pulcherrima Productions.  1997.  Twin Cities Creation Science Association.  n.d. <http://www.tccsa.tc/articles/star_susan_carroll.pdf>  Phillips, Tony. “A Christmas Star for SOHO.”  NASA Science | Science New. 16 May 2000. <http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2000/ast16may_1>  “Birth of Jesus.” Navsoft.com. 2012. <http://navsoft.com/html/birth_of_jesus.html>  Martin.  The Star of Bethlehem. Chapters 1, 4. <http://web.archive.org/web/20170111193244/http://www.askelm.com/star/star001.htm> <http://web.archive.org/web/20170821004027/http://www.askelm.com/star/star004.htm>  Cain, Fraser. “Venus and Jupiter’s Upcoming Conjunction.”   Universe Today.  29 Oct. 2004.  <http://www.universetoday.com/10006/venus-and-jupiters-upcoming-conjunction/#ixzz2B6cvKJEt>  Sielaff, David.  “An Important August 2 B.C.E. Conjunction.”  A.S.K. (Associates For Scriptural Knowledge), 2005. <http://www.askelm.com/news/n051211.htm>  Clevenger, John. “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.”  Lake County (Illinois) Astronomical   Society.  n.d. <http://www.lcas-astronomy.org/articles/display.php?filename=the_christmas_star&category=miscellaneous>  Haley, A. S. “The Star of Bethlehem and the Nativity.”  Anglican Curmudgeon.  2009. <http://accurmudgeon.blogspot.com/2009/10/star-of-bethlehem-and-nativity.html>  Newman, Robert C. “The Star of Bethlehem: A Natural-Supernatural Hybrid?”  Interdisciplinary Bible Research Institute.  IBRI Paper (2001).  <http://www.newmanlib.ibri.org/Papers/StarofBethlehem/75starbethlehem.htm>  Beatty, Kelly. “Venus and Jupiter:  Together at Last.” Sky & Telescope. 25 June 2015. <http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/observing-news/venus-and-jupiter-a-dazzling-duo-062520154>  Ratnikas,  Algis. “Timeline 499BCE – 1BCE.”  Timeslines of History.  n.d. <http://timelines.ws/0D499_1BC.HTML>  Pratt, John P.  “The Star of Bethlehem’s Forerunner.” JohnPratt.com. <http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/meridian/2000/xmas_star.html>  “Star of Bethlehem May Have Been Planets Jupiter, Venus.”  IU News Room. 16 Dec. 2003.  <http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/1203.html&t=Star%20of%20Bethlehem%20may%20have%20been%20planets%20Jupiter%20and%20Venus>  Mosley, John. “Common Errors in ‘Star of Bethlehem’ Planetarium Shows.” Third Quarter 1981, International Planetarium Society, Inc. n.d. <http://www.ips-planetarium.org/?page=a_mosley1981>  Flescher, Eric and Sessions, Larry. “Ten ‘Star’ of Bethlehem Myths: Part II.”  Space.com. 26 Dec. 2001. <http://web.archive.org/web/20041205014757/http://space.com:80/SpaceReportersNetworkAstronomyDiscoveries/flescher_Xmasstar2_122601.html>  Cain, Fraser. “Venus-Jupiter Conjunction, March 15th, 2012.”  Universe Today. 13 Mar. 2012. <http://www.universetoday.com/94113/venus-jupiter-conjunction-march-15th-2012 >  Fazekas, Andrew.  “Christmas Star Mystery Continues.”  National Geographic Daily News. 24 Dec. 2008.  <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/12/081224-star-bethlehem.html>
[15] “Trade between the Romans and the Empire of Asia.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/silk/hd_silk.htm>  National Museum of American History, “Trade Routes” >  “Major Trade Routes of 2nd Century BCE – 1st Century CE.”  <http://web.archive.org/web/20160618154742/http://americanhistory.si.edu:80/numismatics/parthia/frames/pamaec.htm> “Iran Historical Maps Arsacid Parthian Empire, Armenian Kingdom.” Atlas of Iran Maps. n.d. Iran Politics Club. 2014. <http://iranpoliticsclub.net/maps/maps04/index.htm>