Psalms – Are Any Messiah Prophecies?

Psalms are quoted in the New Testament more than any other book from the Old Testament, the Tenakh.[1] Often associated with King David such as praises, songs, travails, salvation; some describe characteristics of God; others are considered parallels to the Messiah – are any Psalms prophecies about the Messiah?[2]

Psalms identified by Jesus of Nazareth as prophecies to be fulfilled by him raises the bar to the highest level – he must fulfill them if his claim to be the Messiah is credible.

MT: 5:17-18 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill. For truly I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not one letter, not one stroke of a letter, will pass from the law until all is accomplished. (NRSV) [*] [3]

Pharisees had been watching and listening to Jesus since early in his ministry. At one point, Jesus took an opportunity to engage them directly asking, “”What do you think of the Messiah? Whose son is he?”[4] Thinking the question was simple, they answered, “The son of David.” Jesus pointedly quoted from Psalms 110:1:

MT 22:43-45 …”How then does David in the Spirit call Him ‘Lord,’ saying: ‘The LORD said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool’? If David then calls Him ‘Lord,’ how is He his Son?” (NKJV)

PS 110:1 ‘The LORD said to my Lord, “Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool”’? (NKJV)

No answer came from the Pharisees, according to Matthew. They were unable to debunk Psalms 110:1 as a Messiah prophecy.

Visiting Bethany days just before entering Jerusalem for the last time, curiously the Pharisees warned Jesus to leave because Tetrarch Herod Antipas wanted to kill him. Ignoring the warning, Jesus said he was busy casting out demons and performing cures, then finished with a prophecy quoting from Psalms 118:26:

LK 13:35 “I say to you, you shall not see Me until the time comes when you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’” (NKJV)

PS .118:26 “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD! We have blessed you from the house of the LORD.” (NKJV)

Days later, known in Christianity as “Palm Sunday, Jesus rode into the city seated on the unbroken colt of a donkey with the people of the crowd chanting and placing palm branches in his path:[5]

JN 12:12-13  “… a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees and went out to meet Him, and cried out: “Hosanna! ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the LORD!’ The King of Israel!””[6]

All four Gospel authors write about that triumphal day when Jesus entered Jerusalem. Citing the Gospel of John, JewishEncyclopedia.com states: [7]

“According to John xii. 13…which has the story preserved in its original form, the same cry was raised by the multitude on the occasion of Jesus’ arrival at Jerusalem. They “took branches of palm-trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried, Hosanna: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord”—that is, the verse following “Anna Adonai hoshi’ah-nna” in the Hallel psalm— and then called him “the King of Israel.”

Judaism regards Psalms 118 as the concept of salvation pointing to the arrival of the Messiah recited in the Hallel during Festival holidays.[8] JewishEncyclopedia.com articulates, “The Psalm verses recited have been interpreted by the Rabbis also as referring to the advent of the Messiah (see Midr. Teh. to Ps. cxviii. 17, 21, 22; comp. Matt. xxi. 42).”[9]

MT 21:42 “”Have you never read in the scriptures: ‘The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; this was the Lord’s doing, and it is amazing in our eyes’?” (NRSV)

PS 118:22-23 “The stone that the builders rejected has become the chief cornerstone. This is the Lord’s doing; it is marvelous in our eyes” (NRSV)

Jewish sage Rabbi Rashi viewed Micah 5:1 (5:2 in Christian translations) as a prophecy predicting the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem. Breaking down the prophecy phrase by phrase, he commented “from you shall emerge for Me the Messiah, son of David, and so Scripture says (Ps. 118:22): ‘The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone.” Intriguingly, Rashi did not provide a similar commentary for Psalms 118:22.

Teaching in the Temple just 3 days before he would be crucified, the Pharisees again questioned Jesus by what authority he was teaching. His answer included one of the few parables common to Mathew, Mark and Luke.[10]

Payment was due for the lease of his tenant’s crops so the owner of the vineyard sent one, then a second servant to collect the debt. Both were beaten and stoned by the tenants even killing the last one. The vineyard owner then sent his own son to collect the debt thinking surely they would respect him, but they killed his son, too.

“Bring those wretches to a wretched end!” responded the Pharisees.[11] For the second time in a week, Jesus then quoted from Psalms 118:22. Realizing the parable was about them, “They wanted to arrest Jesus, but they feared the crowds, because they regarded him as a prophet.”[12]

Passover meal became “The Last Supper” for Jesus.[13] As they were eating, Jesus identified a prophecy soon to be fulfilled and he didn’t want there to be any question about it. He quoted Psalm 41:9 as a prophecy of duplicity foretelling he would be imminently betrayed by one of his own Disciples.[14]

JN 13:18-19 “I am not referring to all of you; I know those I have chosen. But this is to fulfil the scripture: ‘He who shares my bread has lifted up his heel against me.’ “I am telling you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe that I am He. (NIV)

PS 41:9 Even my close friend, whom I trusted, he who shared my bread, has lifted up his heel against me. (NIV)

Once Judas Iscariot knew his unscrupulous intentions were known by Jesus, he quickly left the Passover meal. His act of betrayal occurred just hours later.[15]

During his nighttime trial by the Sanhedrin, Jesus spoke only once. When he did, it was consequential in more ways than one. Admitting he is the Messiah, he again quoted from Psalms 110:1. “‘I am,’ said Jesus, ‘and you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand  of the Power and coming with the clouds of heaven.’”[16]

Psalms 22 is generally recognized by Christianity as either a foreshadowing or prophecy about the crucifixion of Jesus. The 1000-year older Psalm describes physical and metal effects that remarkably match an execution by Roman crucifixion as well as three specific actions by others, mocking, gambling and piercing. In his excruciating dying moments on the cross, Jesus quoted Psalms 22:1:

MK 15:34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried out in a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?”—which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”

PS 22:1 …“My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Why are you so far from saving me, so far from the words of my groaning?” (NIV)

“Why have you forsaken me?” Rashi commented, “David recited this prayer for the future.” Later in verse 27 commenting on the phrase “The humble shall eat,” the Rabbi said this meant “at the time of our redemption in the days of our Messiah.”[17]

If the Psalms identified by Jesus as prophecies later matched actual events that occurred during his life and crucifixion, is Jesus then the Messiah and does it make these Psalms Messiah prophecies?

 

[*] Greek word nomos translated as “law” means “anything established, anything received by usage, a custom, a law, a command” i.e. the word includes the Law of Moses as well as other established laws, customs or traditions.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] “44 Prophecies Jesus Christ Fulfilled.” Roman Catholic Church of St Thomas More, Swiss Cottage. n.d. <https://parish.rcdow.org.uk/swisscottage/wp-content/uploads/sites/52/2014/11/44-Prophecies-Jesus-Christ-Fulfilled.pdf> Kranz, Jeffrey. “Which Old Testament Book Did Jesus Quote Most?” 2014. <http://blog.biblia.com/2014/04/which-old-testament-book-did-jesus-quote-most> Morales. L. Michael “Jesus and the Psalms.” TheGospelCoalition.org. 2011. <https://www.thegospelcoalition.org/article/jesus-and-the-psalms>  Wilson, Ralph F. “10. Psalms: Looking Forward to the Messiah.” (Psalms 2, 110, and 22).” JesusWalk.com. 2020. <http://www.jesuswalk.com/psalms/psalms-10-messianic.htm>
[2] “Hallel.” MyJewishLearning.com. 2020. <https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/hallel>
[3] “nomos <3551>.” Greek text. Net.Bible.org. 2020. <http://classic.net.bible.org/strong.php?id=3551>  “G3551” LexiconConcordance.com. n.d.  <http://lexiconcordance.com/greek/3551.html>
[4] NET, NIV, NASB, NRSV, NKJV. NetBible.org. Greek text. <http://classic.net.bible.org/verse.php?book=Mat&chapter=22&verse=42> Lexicon-Concordance Online Bible. n.d. <http://lexiconcordance.com/greek/5547.html>
[5] CR Matthew 21:2-11; Mark 11:1-11; Luke 19:28-40; John 12:12-16.
[6] NKJV.
[7] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7893-hosanna>
[8] “Psalms 118.” JewwishAwareness.org. 2011. <http://www.jewishawareness.org/psalm-118>  McKelvey, Michael G. “The Messianic Nature of Psalm 118.” Reformed Faith & Practice. 2017. <https://journal.rts.edu/article/messianic-nature-psalm-118> “Hallel” EncyclopædiaBritannica. 2020. <https://www.britannica.com/topic/Hallel>
[9] “Hosanna.” Jewish Encyclopedia. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/7893-hosanna>  CR Mark 12:11; Luke 20:17.
[10] Matthew 21:33-41; Mark 12:1-12; Luke 20:9-19.
[11] Matthew 21:42. NIV, NASB.
[12] Matthew 21:46. NRSV.
[13] Matthew 26:17-19; Mark 14:12-16; Luke 22:7-20; John 13:1-3.
[14] CR Matthew 26:21-25; Mark 14:17-21; Luke 22:21-23.
[15] Matthew 26:46-56; Mark 14:42-52; Luke 22:47-53; John 18:1-11.
[16] Mark 14:62. NIV. CR Matthew 26:64. Luke 22:69-70.
[17] The Compete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. K’tuvim – Scriptures | Tehillim – Psalms, Chapter 22.  <http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm>

 

Resurrection On the Third Day Prophecies?

Nowhere in the Old Testament or Tenakh can a prophecy be found predicting the Messiah would rise from the dead on the third day. It is a prophecy belonging exclusively to Jesus of Nazareth – three times.

Isaiah 52-53 describes the death of the Servant of God who would be despised, suffer greatly, be judged and killed. Psalms 22 describes a death wholly consistent with the horrors of Roman crucifixion a 1000 years later with Jesus quoting from the Psalm in his dying moments on the cross. Zechariah 12:10 distinctly predicts the Messiah would be killed.

Life after death is depicted in Isaiah 53:8-12. The Servant of God is killed along with rebels; buried in a rich man’s tomb and afterwards sees the prosperity of his deeds in a prolonged life. What isn’t predicted is how long the Servant would be dead before he would live again. Only in the Gospels can be found any prophecy of a Resurrection on the third day.

First of the third-day Resurrection predictions by Jesus occurred in Caesarea Philippi early in his 3-year ministry.[1] Up to this point, Jesus had been in Galilee giving amazing sermons interspersed by performing miracles of healing incurable diseases and birth defects; casting our demons; and raising the dead. To his Disciples, it didn’t get much better than this.

Word got back to the Jewish leadership in Jerusalem who began watching and listening to Jesus. According to Mark, Jesus openly prophesied that he would be rejected by the Jewish leaders, killed and then rise again after three days:[2]

MK 8:31-32 “And He began to teach them that the Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again. He spoke this word openly. And Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him.” (NKJV)

Peter took Jesus aside and said, “Far be it from You, Lord; this shall not happen to You!”[3] Seeing that Peter’s comment came straight from Satan, Jesus responded directly, “Get behind Me, Satan! For you are not mindful of the things of God, but the things of men.”[4]

Second of the third-day Resurrection prophecies came again while Jesus was in Galilee.[5] Healing and casting out demons, the crowds had been amazed at everything Jesus was doing, but the Disciples were warned by Jesus that the jubilation about him was only temporary:

MK 9:31 “The Son of Man is to be delivered into the hands of men, and they will kill Him; and when He has been killed, He will rise three days later.” (NASB) [6]

Reaction to the prophecy this time “greatly distressed” the Disciples. Not sure what it meant, they seemed to be focused only on the prediction their teacher and miracle worker would be killed, not the prediction he would rise from the dead.[7] Nevertheless, the Disciples were afraid to ask Jesus about the true meaning of the prophecy.[8]

Nearing the end of his three-year ministry, days before entering Jerusalem for last time at the Festival of the Passover. Luke’s account reports how Jesus again predicted his death providing more specific details. Jesus foretold that the Jews would hand him over to the Gentiles when he would be mocked, spat on, scourged, and crucified in fulfillment of the written prophecies: [9]

LK 18:31 “See, we are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written about the Son of Man by the prophets will be accomplished. For he will be handed over to the Gentiles; and he will be mocked and insulted and spat upon. After they have flogged him, they will kill him, and on the third day he will rise again.” (NRSV)

It was an inconceivable scenario. Not so much that the Jewish leadership wanted to eliminate their arch nemesis – a prediction they would kill Jesus would not be a shocking revelation. It was the prediction that the Romans would actually carry-out the execution at the behest of the Jews. The concept was incomprehensible because of how the Jews and the Romans reviled each other. Add to that, the seeming impossibility of rising from the dead on the third day.

Shortly before his arrest on Mount Gethsemane, Jesus made one last passing prophetic reference of his Resurrection to his Disciples. He told them, “But after I have been raised, I will go ahead of you to Galilee.”[10]

Matthew uniquely reports the incident between the Jewish leadership and Pilate that took place the day after Jesus was buried, the Sabbath. It is obvious that Matthew had a insider source to the Jewish Council in order to obtain this private information.

Jewish leadership approached Pilate to explain their concern and try to convince him it was a problem that required his assistance. Some unpleasant concessions had to be made.

First, the Jewish leadership had to acknowledge that Jesus did, in fact, predict he would rise from the dead. “Sir, we remember, while He was still alive, how that deceiver said, ‘After three days I will rise.’[11]

Next they had to convince Pilate the Disciples would try to steal the body to falsely fulfill the prophecy. “Therefore command that the tomb be made secure until the third day, lest His disciples come by night and steal Him away, and say to the people, ‘He has risen from the dead.’ So the last deception will be worse than the first.”[12]

By acknowledging the Resurrection prophecy, the Jewish leadership cleared up an ambiguous aspect. They understood the “Son of Man” references in the Resurrection prophecies to be about Jesus himself, no one else.

Lastly, they had to convince Pilate this was a short-term problem by placing a time constraint on their request: “Therefore command that the tomb be made secure until the third day.”[13] Requesting to only secure the tomb until the third day which was the next day, Sunday, they confirmed their recognition the Resurrection prophecy was for the “third day” by Jewish definition. Securing the tomb was not necessary beyond that time.

Only Jesus of Nazareth himself foretold he would rise from dead on the third day, exclusive of any prediction by the prophets. It was a prophecy foretold only by Jesus, not just once, but three times.

Was the prophecy of Jesus rose from the dead at sunrise on Sunday morning, the third day according to Jewish Law reckoning, and if it was fulfilled, is Jesus the promised Messiah?

 

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] Matthew 16:13, 21,; Mark 8:27, 31. CR Luke 9:18.
[2] Matthew 3-15; Mark 1-8; Luke 4-9.
[3] Matthew 16:22. NKJV.
[4] Mark 8:33. NJKV.
[5] Matthew 17:22; Mark 9:30.
[6] CR Matthew 17:22-23; Luke 9:44.
[7] Matthew 17:23.
[8] Luke 9:45.
[9] Matthew 20:18-19; Mark 10:33-34; Luke 18:31-33.
[10] Matthew 26:32. NASB.
[11] Matthew 27:63. NKJV.
[12] Matthew 27:64. NKJV.
[13] Matthew 27:64. NKJV.

Interpretations of the Rabbis – the Messiah Prophecies

Tenakh and Old Testament Scriptures originate essentially from the same Hebrew texts, but when it comes to Messiah prophecies, interpretations vary widely. Christianity and Judaism disagree on any prophecy about the Messiah deemed to be fulfilled by Jesus of Nazareth.

Among the authorities of Judaism, the Rabbi sages are not always in agreement on which prophecies point to the Messiah. Christianity is no exception where differences exist on such topics as baptism, worship, confessions – even salvation.

Some Rabbi sages  became known for their views documented in commentaries, letters or published works. Other Rabbis expressed themselves through their contributions to the Babylonian Talmud in its various Gemaras.

Rabbi Rashi is esteemed for his Scriptural commentaries. So much so, a mainstream Jewish Bible is named the Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary.[1]

Fondly called Rambam, Rabbi Maimonides authored the Mishneh Torah known for formulating the Law into the 13 principals of Jewish faith.[2] The work is regarded for codifying the halakhah or Jewish Law.[3]

Rabbi Jose the Galilean is known both for his quoted contributions in Talmud Gemaras as well as for his independent commentaries. He was a distinguished Rabbi leader as an authority on sacrifices and the Temple.

Moshe Kohen ibn Crispin was a renowned twelfth century Rabbi and poet from Spain. His acclaimed contribution to Judaism is his Jewish work entitled Sefer ha-Musar meaning the Book of Instruction.[4]

Renaissance era Rabbi David Kimchi aka RaDaK is highly regarded by Jewish authorities of whom it is said “Where there is no Kimchi, there is no law.”[5] The Prophets edition of the Torah reveals RaDaK’s commentaries written in the margins.

Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein during the first half of the last century served as Editor for the Soncino Babylonian Talmud edition intended to reproduce a “clear and lucid” literal English translation in the restored, uncensored version.[6] Under his Editorship, bracketed words were added to clarify the text.[7] Censored or removed content was restored either in the body of the text or reintroduced within the footnotes. A Glossary and an Abbreviation table added even more clarity.[8]

One of the oldest Messiah prophesies is Jacob’s blessing of Judah in Genesis, recognized by Rashi as establishing the foundation for the future Messiah. The blessing foretells his son’s descendants, the Tribe of Judah, would become a like a lion where the “scepter” would remain until the coming of “Shiloh.”

Rashi identified “Shiloh” as the “King Messiah, to whom the kingdom belongs” and that the “scepter” refers to the royal lineage of “David and thereafter.”[9] Translated from the Hebrew word shebet as “scepter” or “staff,” it is the same word that appears in Balaam’s prophecy:[10]

Num 24:17 “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth.” (NASB)

Providing more insight to the meaning of shebet, Rashi remarked the Messiah is one who “shoots out like an arrow” from Jacob and uproots the sons of Sheth or Seth (the son of Adam).[11]Maimonides, in the Mishneh Torah, expounded on Balaam’s prophecy. The Rabbi interpreted it to be referring to “King Moshiach” (Messiah) who would come from the lineage of David.[12]

“My Servant” in the Isaiah 52:13 – 53:12 parashah or passage is viewed by Christianity predicting the suffering, death and Resurrection of the Messiah, a prophecy fulfilled by Jesus of Nazareth. Judaism generally treats “My Servant” as a metaphor of a single man representing the nation of Israel.[13] Yet Rabbi sages, going back to the days of the Talmud, pointed to 5 different Messiah prophecies within the parashah.

Sanhedrin 98b quotes Isaiah 53:3 as the basis for one of the names of the Messiah.[14] Independently, Rabbi Jose the Galilean wrote the Messiah would be wounded for our transgressions quoting from Isaiah 53:5 and 53.7.[15] In a responsa letter from Maimonides, he referred to Isaiah 53:2 and 52:15 writing that the Messiah would be identified by his origins and his wonders.[16]

Rabbi Moshe Kohen ibn Crispin said in a counterview opinion that “My Servant” in the Isaiah 52-53 parashah refers to “King Messiah” while admitting his interpretation is in conflict with the prevailing Jewish position. In Sefer ha-Musar, Crispin gave surprisingly bold verse by verse commentaries defining expectations for the Messiah. [17]

Frequently seen during Christmas season in western cultures is Isaiah 9:6 foretelling a son who would bear the full responsibility for the government; one to be known by many names. Judaism generally disagrees it is a Messiah prophecy:

IS 9:6 “For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.” (NKJV)

One name, the “Prince of Peace,” is addressed by Rabbi’s in a Talmud Gemara found in “The Chapter on Peace.” Rabbi Jehoshua asserted the Prince was the “Holy One…called “Adonay-shalom” Rabbi Jose the Galilean declared “Peace” is the name of the Messiah, “as it is written ‘The prince of peace.’” Rashi viewed the prophecy to be about Kings David and Hezekiah.[18]

Micah 5:2 seemingly unambiguously predicts the birthplace of the future ruler of Israel, yet it is challenged by some Jewish authorities.[19] Rashi interpreted the verse to be foretelling the Messiah would come from Bethlehem, the son of Jesse, the son of King David.[20] Quoting Psalms 118:22, “The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone,” Rashi then revealed another name for the Messiah, “Yinnon,” who is older than the sun referring to Psalms 72:17.

Zechariah 12:10 predicts the Messiah is to be killed, the open question between Judaism and Christianity is the interpretation of the Hebrew word daqar as “pierced” or “thrust through.” Some Rabbis in the Talmud Gemara Sukkah 52a believed it to be a Messiah prophecy, but not all. Rashi offered a third interpretation saying the prophecy is about Zerubbabel while acknowledging others view it to be about the Messiah.[21]The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary and other Jewish Bibles interprets daqar as “thrust through.”

Psalms 22, along with the Isaiah 52-53 passage, is a preeminent Messiah prophecy recognized by Christianity predicting in detail the circumstances of the death of Jesus of Nazareth by crucifixion. Judaism, on the other hand, focuses solely on the second verse “Why have you forsaken me?” as the basis for the Psalm being about the nation of Israel.

Rashi interpreted the verse this way: “They are destined to go into exile, and David recited this prayer for the future.” Later in verse 27, “The humble shall eat and be sated; they shall praise the Lord, those who seek him; your hearts shall live forever,” the Rabbi remarked about its meaning: “at the time of our redemption in the days of our Messiah.”[22]

Studying and researching the Bible using the ancient Hebrew texts is one good way to determine the true meaning of the Messiah prophecies. Which prophecies point to the Messiah that, in turn, set the requirements and expectations for the Messiah?

 

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] The Complete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. <http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/63255/jewish/The-Bible-with-Rashi.htm>
[2] Maimonides. Mishneh Torah. Trans. Eliyahu Touger.  <http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/682956/jewish/Mishneh-Torah.htm>
[3] Rich, Tracey R. “Jewish Beliefs.” JewFAQ.org. n.d. <http://www.jewfaq.org/beliefs.htm>
[4] Crispin, Moshe Kohen ibn.  “Sefer ha-Musar.”  Neubauer, Driver & Rolles.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 99-100.  <https://books.google.com/books?id=YxdbAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[5] “Kimhi” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/9320-kimhi>  Marlowe, Michael.  Editions of the Hebrew Text of the Bible. Bible Research. “The Incunabula.” 2012. <http://www.bible-researcher.com/hebrew-editions.html>  Rosenau, William. Jewish Biblical Commentators. pp 87-91 n.d. <http://www.archive.org/stream/jewishbiblicalco00rose/jewishbiblicalco00rose_djvu.txt>  Mindel, Nissan. “Rabbi David Kimchi – RaDaK.” Chabad.org. 2020. <http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/111880/jewish/Rabbi-David-Kimchi-RaDaK.htm>
[6] Epstein, Dr. Isador, Editor. Soncino Babylonian Talmud. “Introduction to Seder Nezikin:  General Character and Contents.” 1935-1948. <https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/talmud/nezikin.html>
[7] Epstein, Dr. Isador, Editor. Soncino Babylonian Talmud. “Come and Hear.”1935-1948. <https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/talmud/index.html>
[8] Epstein. “Come and Hear.” “Soncino Talmud Glossary” and “Abbreviations Used in the Soncino Talmud.”
[9] Rashi. The Compete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. Genesis 49:10 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/8244/showrashi/true>  Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 98a.
[10] Numbers 24:17. NetBible.org. Hebrew text shebet <07626> <http://classic.net.bible.org/strong.php?id=07626>
[11] Rashi. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary  Numbers 24:17 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/9952/showrashi/true>
[12] Maimonides. “The Law Concerning Moshiach.”  
[13] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Isaiah 53:3-4 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/15984/jewish/Chapter-53.htm/showrashi/true>  Neubauer, Driver & Rolles.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. p 37.  Gold, Moshe “Israel’s Messenger, The Suffering Servant of Isaiah – A Rabbinic Anthology.” Israel’s Messenger. 2009. Jewish Awareness Ministries. <http://www.jewishawareness.org/the-suffering-servant-of-isaiah-a-rabbinic-antholo>
[14] Isaiah 53:3. Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Sanhedrin 98b, footnote #31. CR Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 12-16. <https://books.google.com/books?id=YxdbAAAAQAAJ&pg=PP1#v=snippet&q=Galilean&f=false>
[15] Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. p 11. 
[16] Maimonides. “Letter to the South (Yemen)”. p 374. Neubauer and Driver. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters
[17] Crispin, Moshe Kohen ibn. “Sefer ha-Musar.” Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 99-101.
[18] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.  Isaiah 9:6.  Rashi commentary. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10777-micah-book-of>  The Babylonian Talmud. Trans. Michael L. Rodkinson. 1918. Book 5: Tractate  Derech  Eretz-Zuta, “The Chapter >on Peace.”  Internet Sacred Text Archives. 2010. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/talmud.htm> CR Judges 6:24. NetBible.org. Hebrew text “Y@havah shalowm” <03073>.
[19] “Micah, Book of.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. “Contents and Unity.” <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10777-micah-book-of>
[20] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.  Micah 5:1 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16191/showrashi/true>
[21] The Complete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. Zechariah 6:12 Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16210/showrashi/true>
[22] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.  Psalms 22. Rashi commentary. <https://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16243/showrashi/true>