“I AM” – a Blasphemy or the Truth?
High Priest Caiaphas asked Jesus of Nazareth under oath a direct question, “’Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?’ Jesus answered ‘I Am.’” To Caiaphas and other Jewish leaders, it was self-incriminating prima facie evidence – standalone proof – of blasphemy. Leviticus Law defined blasphemy to be a capital offense, death by stoning:
LV 24:16 “Moreover, the one who blasphemes the name of the LORD shall surely be put to death; all the congregation shall certainly stone him. The alien as well as the native, when he blasphemes the Name, shall be put to death.” (NASB)
In the Biblical backdrop, the son of an Egyptian father and Israelite mother had been apprehended for the offense of blasphemy. In the first and only documented judgement for blasphemy in the Old Testament, the Tanakh, the son was judged by God Himself through Moses:
LV 24:13-15 Then the LORD said to Moses: “Take the blasphemer outside the camp. All those who heard him are to lay their hands on his head, and the entire assembly is to stone him.
LV 24:23 “… and they took the blasphemer outside the camp and stoned him. The Israelites did as the LORD commanded Moses. (NIV)
What exactly constituted the act of blasphemy? It was not until centuries later that the legal question was answered in the Babylonian Talmud:
MISHNAH: “The blasphemer is punished only if he utters the [The Divine] Name.”(Soncino)
An effort to further define the Mishnah, called the Gemara, led Jewish Rabbi sages to discuss the act of blasphemy. Considered to be so sacred, the scenario required extraordinary treatment by using euphemisms.
During a blasphemy trial, special rules prohibited witnesses from quoting the blasphemy; instead, the court was to use the substitute name of “Jose.” Only one witness was allowed to quote the blasphemy and all others were to simply say if they agreed with what they heard.
Upon hearing a blasphemy, judges were to rend their garments, a Jewish sign of displaying heart-rending anguish or mourning. It was exactly the reaction of Caiaphas when he heard Jesus answer his question with “I Am.”
Great Hebrew significance of “I AM” goes all the way back to Moses and the unconsumed, burning bush. Curiosity had drawn Moses closer to the bush when a Voice called him by name. Moses asked who was speaking and the Voice responded:
EX 3:6 “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” (The Complete Jewish Bible, NASB)
The Voice identify Himself as “God,” translated from ‘elohiym, the Hebrew plural masculine word meaning “God, divine ones, rulers, judges.” (Translators added the preceding “I am” only as a clarifying literary aide.)
Commanded to return to Egypt and confront Pharaoh, Moses asked what he should say if anyone asked who sent him? Resoundingly, the booming Voice declared:
EX 3:14-15 “I AM WHO I AM”; and He said, “Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, ‘I AM has sent me to you.” God, furthermore, said to Moses, “Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, ‘The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is My name forever, and this is My memorial-name to all generations. (NASB)
Translated into English as “I AM” from the Hebrew verb hayah, it means “to exist i.e. to be or become, come to pass (always emphatic)” – it is neither a noun nor a pronoun. God emphatically identified Himself with an on-going action verb; according to Rabbi Rashi – “I will be” – no beginning or end.
In Hebrew, I AM is spelled YHVH, the four letter ineffable Hebrew name of God or “Tetragrammaton” derived from the root word hayah, “I AM.” According to Rashi, the Hebrew 4-letter Name is not intended to be spoken. As such, the ineffable Hebrew proper name of God is translated as “The LORD” in place of the unspeakable Divine Name and also appears in other Biblical references as Jehovah, God (‘elohiym), or Adonai.
Jewish translators of the Hebrew-to-Greek Septuagint LXX completed in 247 BC translated the Exodus text of both “I AM” and “The LORD” into Greek as “ego eimi.” Jesus answered Caiaphas using these very same two Greek words, ego eimi.
Ego is a primary first person pronoun to be pronounced emphatically. Eimi, also to be said emphatically, is “the first person singular present indicative meaning “exist’” with characteristics of present and future tenses.
When Jesus answered Caiaphas’ question saying “ego eimi,” in essence he declared emphatically and authoritatively a statement of fact: “[Yes], I Am [presently and into the future, the Messiah, the Son of God].”
A year earlier, Pharisees also believed they had heard Jesus commit blasphemy. While teaching at the Temple, Jesus several times referred to himself as ego eimi:
JN 8:12 “…I AM the light of the world…” (Jubliee)
JN 8:24 “…unless you believe that I AM, you’ll die in your sins.”(ISV)
JN 8:28 “When you have lifted up the Son of Man, then you will know that I AM…”(ISV)
Continuing, the Pharisees accused Jesus of being possessed by a demon after he said, “If anyone keeps My word, he will never taste of death.” They aptly pointed out that Abraham and the prophets had surely kept God’s word yet they were dead. Jesus responded to the reference of Abraham:
JN 8:56-58 “Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it and was glad.” Then the Jews said to Him, “You are not yet fifty years old, and have You seen Abraham?” Jesus said to them, “Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM.”(NKJV)
In one of the most astonishing statements in all the Gospels, Jesus not only said he actually knew Abraham, he had observed in real time Abraham rejoicing when he saw that the day of Jesus had arrived. Even more incredibly, Jesus explicitly said, “Before Abraham was, I AM” – ego eimi. Believing they had undoubtedly heard a blasphemy, the Pharisees picked up stones to kill Jesus, but according to John, it was not yet his time and Jesus escaped unharmed.
Facts of the case are undisputed – under oath Jesus identified himself as I Am, the Son of God. What remains is the open question: did Jesus speak a blasphemy or the truth? If Jesus spoke blasphemy, his death sentence was truly justified according to God’s own Law.
If Jesus is the Son of God, he could not have spoken a blasphemy. Instead, in this scenario he was unjustly judged in his own Father’s House in his own Father’s chosen judgment seat of Israel pursuant to his Father’s own Law of blasphemy.
Perhaps the greatest paradox of all time – at the Passover on the sacred Mount Moriah in the holy city of Jerusalem, Jesus declared himself to be the Son of God to the Priests and Scribes of the Temple, the House of God – was the statement of Jesus under oath a blasphemy or the truth?
Updated September 21, 2022.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License .
NASB = New American Standard Bible translation
ISV = International Standard Version translation
NIV = New International Version translation
NKJV = New King James Version translation
 NASB. Luke 22:67-71. CR Matthew 26:63-65; Mark 14-63-65;
 Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Ed. Isidore Epstein. Sanhedrin 55b, footnote #20. <http://come-and-hear.com/tcontents.html>
 Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Sanhedrin 56a, 66a. The Babylonian Talmud. Rodkinson translation. Book 8, Tract Sanhedrin, Chapter VII, Mishna VI. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/talmud.htm>
 Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Sanhedrin 56a, 66a.
 Lamm, Maurice. “Keriah – The Rending of Garments.” Chabad.org. 2018. <http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/281558/jewish/Keriah-The-Rending-of-Garments.htm>
 “<H0430>”Lexicon-Concordance Online Bible. n.d. <http://lexiconcordance.com>
 Net.bible.org. Hebrew text. Strong, James. The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. 1990.“hayah <1961>.” The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. 2018. Shemot – Exodus 3:14 translation & commentary. <http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/9864#showrashi=true> “exist;” “be/” “become,” “transitive.” Merriam-Webster. 2018. <http://www.merriam-webster.com> “<H1961>”Lexicon-Concordance Online Bible. n.d. <http://lexiconcordance.com>
 Rashi. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Shemot – Exodus 3:15 commentary. Benner, Jeff, The Ancient Hebrew Alphabet. 2017. “vav.” <http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/alphabet_letters_vav.html>
 Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Sanhedrin 55b & footnote #20, 56a. Martincic, Tom. “The Meaning of the Tetragrammaton.” Eliyah.com. n.d. <http://www.eliyah.com/tetragrm.html> “Tetragrammaton.” Dictionary.com. <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/tetragrammaton?s=t> Marlowe, Michael. The Translation of the Tetragrammaton.” Bible Research. 2011. <http://www.bible-researcher.com/tetragrammaton.html> “Tetragrammation.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14346-tetragrammaton> Singer, Isidore; Adler, Cyrus, et. al. The Jewish Encyclopedia. Volume 9. 1912. “The Seven Names.” p 163. <https://books.google.com/books?id=lfoOtGOcIBYC&lpg=PA594&ots=6qoCfVVUz7&dq=wave+sheaf+encyclopedia&pg=PA594&hl=en#v=onepage&q=seven&f=false>
 NetBible.com. Exodus 3:6 – Septuagint text; Hebrew text Myhlah <403>, ‘elohiym, the plural form of ‘elowahh <0433>. Biblehub.com. Exodus 3:6 Hebrew ’ĕ-lō-hê <403>, plural form of eloah. Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. Book XII, Chapter II.1-6, 13-1. Trans. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus. 1850. <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false> “I AM.” Names For God. n.d. <https://namesforgod.net/i-am>
 Net.bible.org. Luke 22:70, Greek text. Strong. “ego <1473> The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
 Net.bible.org. Luke 22:70, Greek text. Strong. “eimi <1510>” The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
 Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary. John 8:12. BibleHub.com. <http://biblehub.com/commentaries/jfb/john/8.htm>
 Gill’s Exposition. John 8:24. BibleHub.com. <http://biblehub.com/commentaries/gill/john/8.htm> Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. John 8:24. BibleHub.com. <http://biblehub.com/commentaries/cambridge/john/8.htm> Wesley’s Notes on the Bible. John 8:24. BibleHub.com. <http://biblehub.com/commentaries/wes/john/8.htm>
 Wesley’s Notes on the Bible. John 8:28. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. John 8:28.
 NASB. John 8:52.
 John 8:52-55.
 Gill’s Exposition. John 8:58. Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. John 8:58. Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary. John 8:58. Wesley’s Notes on the Bible. John 8:58.
 John 8:59.
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