Interpretations of the Rabbis – Messiah Prophecies


Hebrew texts serve as the basis for the Tenakh and the Old Testament Scriptures, but when it comes to Messiah prophecies, translations and their meaning vary. Christianity and Judaism disagree on some Messiah prophecies, especially those deemed to be fulfilled by the life of Jesus of Nazareth.

Judaism’s interpretations are based primarily on the views of the Rabbi sages who are not always in agreement among themselves on which prophecies point to the Messiah. Differences in Christianity are no exception on such topics as baptism, worship, confessions – even salvation.

Some Rabbi sages became known for their prophecy interpretations documented in commentaries, letters (Responsa) or published works. Other views of Rabbis are expressed in contributions to Gemaras in the Talmud.

Rabbi Rashi is one such renowned Jewish sage esteemed for his Scriptural commentaries. So much so, a mainstream Jewish Bible is named the Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary.[1]

One of the oldest Messiah prophecies is Jacob’s blessing of Judah in Genesis 49:9-10. Jacob foretold that Judah’s descendants would become a “like a lion” and the “scepter” will not depart from them until Shiloh comes. The blessing is recognized by Rashi as a prophecy establishing the foundation for the future Messiah.[2]

Gen. 49:8-10 “Judah, your brothers shall praise you; Your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies; Your father’s sons shall bow down to you. “Judah is a lion’s whelp; From the prey, my son, you have gone up. He couches, he lies down as a lion, And as a lion, who dares rouse him up? The sceptre will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs and the obedience of the nations is his.” (NASB)

Rashi identified “Shiloh” as the “King Messiah, to whom the kingdom belongs.” The Hebrew word shebet is translated as “scepter” or “staff” and, according to Rashi, refers to the future royal lineage of “David and thereafter.”[3] The word shebet appears again in Balaam’s prophecy and Rashi interpreted it to mean “a king who rules dominantly” from the future lineage of David.[4]

Another prominent Jewish sage is Rabbi Maimonides, also known as Rambam, who authored the Mishneh Torah revered for formulating the Law into the 13 principals of Jewish faith.[5] His work is also regarded for codifying the halakhah or Jewish Law.[6]

Maimonides interpreted Balaam’s prophecy to be referring to “King Moshiach” (Messiah) who would come from the lineage of David.[7] Rashi believed this to be a prophecy about King David commenting he is one who “shoots out like an arrow” from Jacob and uproots the sons of Sheth or Seth (the son of Adam).[8]

Num 24:17 “I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth.” (NASB)

Micah 5:2 seemingly unambiguously predicts the place of origin for the future ruler of Israel, yet the prophecy is challenged by some Jewish authorities.[9] Rashi interpreted the verse to be foretelling the Messiah would come from Bethlehem in the lineage Jesse and King David, then quoted Psalms 118:22, “The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone.”[10]

Some Rabbis in the Talmud Gemara Sukkah 52a believed the  Zechariah 12:10 prophecy refers to the death of the Messiah, others disagreed saying it had nothing to do with the Messiah. Rabbi Maimonides was silent in the prophecy while Rashi offered a third interpretation saying the prophecy is a metaphor about Israel.[11]

Psalms 22 is a passage recognized by Christianity as a Messiah prophecy describing in detail the circumstances of a death consistent with a Roman crucifixion a millennia later. Judaism focuses solely on the question in the second verse, “Why have you forsaken me?” as the interpretation basis for the Psalm being about the nation of Israel.[12]

My Servant” in the Isaiah 52:13 – 53:12 parashah or passage is viewed by Christianity as predicting the suffering, death and Resurrection of the Messiah fulfilled by the life of Jesus of Nazareth. Judaism generally treats “My Servant” as a metaphor of a single man representing the nation of Israel; however, some Rabbi sages pose interesting piecemeal interpretations that are conflicting.[13]

Rabbi sages, going back to the days of the Talmud, pointed to 5 different Messiah prophecies within the Isaiah 52-53 parashah: Isaiah 52:13,15, 53:2, 5, 7. Adding a sixth reference, Talmud tractate Sanhedrin 98b quotes Isaiah 53:3 as the basis for one of the names of the Messiah.[14]

Misheh Torah made Maimonides famous, even in those days receiving fan mail. His response letters, known as Responsa (or Teshuvot), have become additional important texts of Maimonides’ Scriptural interpretations.[15] In one responsa, Maimonides referenced Isaiah 52:15 and 53:2 predicting the Messiah would be identified by his origins and his wonders.[16]

Rabbi Moshe Kohen ibn Crispin was from Spain and a renowned twelfth century Rabbi and poet. He is acclaimed in Judaism for his Jewish work entitled Sefer ha-Musar, the “Book of Instruction.”[17]

Crispin espoused that “My Servant” in Isaiah 52:13 of the Isaiah 52-53 parashah refers to “King Messiah” while acknowledging his interpretation is in conflict with the prevailing Jewish position. Still not believing that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah, his book gave surprisingly bold verse by verse commentaries defining expectations for the Messiah.[18]

Rabbi Jose the Galilean was a distinguished Rabbi leader and recognized authority on sacrifices and the Temple. He is reputed for both for his quoted contributions in the Talmud Gemaras as well as for his independent commentaries.

Independently, the Rabbi wrote the Messiah would be wounded for our transgressions quoting from Isaiah 53.7.[19] “The name of the Messiah is also ‘peace;'” saying, ‘…and as it is written [Is. ix. 5]: “The prince of peace.”

Frequently seen during the Christmas season in western cultures is Isaiah 9:6, deemed to be a Messiah prophecy in Christianity. The verse foretells of a son who would bear the full responsibility for the government and would be known by many names.

IS 9:6 “For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; And the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.” (NKJV)

Judaism generally disagrees saying the verse it is not a Messiah prophecy. Rashi’s commentary specifically refuted Christian interpretations, instead saying it is about the authority and peace of King Hezekiah and King David.

Interpretations and understandings of things said in the Bible, specifically prophecies, may or may not be what God intended. Paying close attention to the words and the fuller context can reveal true meaning. Which prophecies point to the Messiah that set the requirements and expectations for the Messiah?


Updated February 12, 2024.

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[1] The Complete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. <>  Dev, Naaleh. Naaleh Torah Online. image. n.d.>
[2] The Compete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. Genesis 49:9-10 Rashi commentary.  Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 98a. CR Gensis 17:6, NASB.
[3] Rashi. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Genesis 49:10.
[4] Rashi. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary  Numbers 24:17.  Maimonides. “The Law Concerning Moshiach.”  Hebrew text shebet <07626> <>
[5] Maimonides. Mishneh Torah. Trans. Eliyahu Touger.  <>  Maimonides, Moses. The Thirteen Principles of Jewish Faith. n.d. <>
[6] Rich, Tracey R. “Jewish Beliefs.” n.d. <>
[7] Maimonides. “The Law Concerning Moshiach.”
[8] Rashi. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary  Numbers 24:17.
[9] “Micah, Book of.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. “Contents and Unity.” <>
[10] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary. Micah 5:1
[11] The Complete Jewish Bible – with Rashi Commentary. Zechariah 6:12.  Sukkah 52a. Trans. Soncino Babylonian Talmud. n.d. pp 74-77, footnote #1-3. <>
[12] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary.  Psalms 22.
[13] The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary. Isaiah 53:3-4.  Neubauer, Driver & Rolles.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. p 37.  Gold, Moshe. “Israel’s Messenger, The Suffering Servant of Isaiah – A Rabbinic Anthology.” Israel’s Messenger. 2009. Jewish Awareness Ministries. <>
[14] Isaiah 53:3. Soncino Babylonian Talmud. Ed. Isidore Epstein. Sanhedrin 98b, footnote #31. <>  CR Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 12-16.
[15]Neubauer, Driver & Rolles The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp XVI, 37, 374-375. <>
[16] Maimonides. “Letter to the South (Yemen).”  Neubauer and Driver. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters.> p 374.
[17] Crispin, Moshe Kohen ibn. “Sefer ha-Musar.” Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 99-101.  Marlowe, Michael.  Editions of the Hebrew Text of the Bible. Bible Research. “The Incunabula.” 2012. <>  Rosenau, William. Jewish Biblical Commentators. pp 87-91 n.d. < fifty-third chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 99-100.  <>
[18] Crispin, Moshe Kohen ibn. “Sefer ha-Musar.” Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 99-101.
[19] Jose the Galilaean. Neubauer, Driver & Rolles. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. pp 10-11, R

Jeremiah – (Don’t Kill) the Messenger


Jeremiah was tasked by God to deliver bad news to kings and the people of Jerusalem at a time when it was not uncommon to kill the messenger if the news was not welcome.[1] It didn’t matter that sprinkled in were reassuring prophecies of good news about the coming Messiah and the regathering in Jerusalem of the defeated, broken nation of the Hebrews.

First, while Josiah was king of Judah, Jeremiah’s prophecy foretold Jerusalem would meet the judgement of total destruction – captives, many killed and treasures lost – because the Hebrew people willfully and repeatedly broke the Covenant they agreed to uphold when God gave it to them at Mt. Sinai.[2] Death plots, even by his own family, were orchestrated to kill Jeremiah.[3]

Passhur, chief of security for the priests, had Jeremiah flogged and put in stocks near the Temple.[4] The next day Jeremiah was released and he forewarned Passhur of the manner of his death, that of his family and friends; specifically, “the king of Babylon” would strike them with terror.[5]

Continuing their defiance and evil ways, such as sex with pagan gods and sacrificing to them their own children, drew the wrath of God setting the scene for the curse of Jeconiah (aka Jehoiachin).[6] God sent a judgement message through Jeremiah to both Jeconiah and his father King Jehoiakim, son of Josiah. For Jehoaikim, it was a death sentence and for Jechoniah, it would be like he was childless – his children would not prosper and none would sit on the throne of David.[7]

Just five verses later, Jeremiah makes clear that in-spite-of God’s judgement, David’s royal lineage would not end.[8] God explicitly promised another king would be raised up from the Branch of David:

Jer 23:5 “”Behold, the days are coming,” declares the LORD, “When I will raise up for David a righteous Branch; And He will reign as king and act wisely And do justice and righteousness in the land.”(NASB)

Nebuchadnezzar’s army attacked Jerusalem fulfilling the judgement prophecy wreaking havoc and destruction on Jerusalem while taking prime captives.[9] One of those captives with special skills and pedigree was indeed King Jeconiah as well as and another future high-profile Biblical figure – Daniel.[10]

Over the next 10 years Nebuchadnezzar’s puppet King Zedekiah, brother of Jeconiah, had learned nothing from the judgment of his father and brother continuing to ignore and offend both King Nebuchadnezzar and God.[11] Having had enough, Nebuchadnezzar took action against Jerusalem once again.

Meanwhile, Irijah, captain of the Guards in Jerusalem, accused Jeremiah of being a traitor and then had him arrested, tried, flogged and thrown into a dungeon.[12] Jeremiah’s nemesis, Pashhur, along with three others approached Zedekiah advising the King that the prophet should be killed because his prophecies were demoralizing the troops.[13] The King allowed them to do as they wanted whereupon Jeremiah was lowered into an old cistern deep with mud and left to starve to death.[14]

Ebed Melech, an Ethiopian official at the palace, heard of Jeremiah’s plight. While King Zedekiah was conducting royal business at the Benjamin Gate away from the strict protocols of the palace, Ebed took the opportunity to inform the King of Jeremiah’s situation.

Quietly King Zedekiah instructed Ebed how to secretly rescue the prophet from the cistern. Jeremiah was moved to an outdoor prison yard and given a scarce daily ration of bread. Later, God rewarded Ebed by sparing him from Nebuchadnezzar’s destruction.[15]

Puppet Zedekiah came to realize the truthfulness of Jeremiah’s prophecies when Nebuchadnezzar again besieged Jerusalem. The King secretly questioned the prophet seeking his guidance, but it was too late.[16] Zedekiah was given a choice – surrender to the Babylonians and live, or fight and die.[17]

During his confinement God sent another message to Jeremiah to address worries that God had rejected Israel and Judah saying the throne of David would never end. Jeremiah foretold that the nations would one day be regathered and restored, then issued a second Branch of David prophecy:

Jer. 33:14-15, 17 “‘The days are coming,’ declares the LORD, ‘when I will fulfil the gracious promise I made to the house of Israel and to the house of Judah.  In those days and at that time I will make a righteous Branch sprout from David’s line; he will do what is just and right in the land… For thus says the LORD, ‘David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel…” (NASB)

A hundred years earlier, Isaiah identified the Branch and prophesied about “My Servant” who would sprout out of dry ground.[18] A century after Jeremiah’s two Branch prophecies, the prophet Zechariah identified “My Servant” as “the Branch,” twice prophesying the Branch would come to rebuild the Temple and rule from his throne:

Zech 3:8 “‘Listen, O high priest Joshua and your associates seated before you, who are men symbolic of things to come: I am going to bring my servant, the Branch.’”(NIV)

Zech 6:12-13 “Tell him this is what the LORD Almighty says: ‘Here is the man whose name is the Branch, and he will branch out from his place and build the temple of the LORD. It is he who will build the temple of the LORD, and he will be clothed with majesty and will sit and rule on his throne. And he will be a priest on his throne. And there will be harmony between the two.’”(NIV)

Renowned Jewish sage Rabbi Maimonides validated the identity of “the Branch.” The Rabbi cited Zechariah 6:12, Isaiah 52:15 and 53:3 as prophecies that the Messiah is “My Servant” who would be called “the Branch.”[19]

Emphasized were the trustworthiness of Jeremiah’s prophecies of God’s promise to Israel and Judah as well as His promises to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and David. It was not just a promise with a limited guarantee or a warranty – God said it was unconditionally ironclad using an analogy of astronomy:

Jer. 33:20-21 “”Thus says the LORD, ‘If you can break My covenant for the day and My covenant for the night, so that day and night will not be at their appointed time, then My covenant may also be broken with David My servant so that he will not have a son to reign on his throne, and with the Levitical priests, My ministers.” (NASB)

Jer. 33:25-261 “”Thus says the LORD, ‘If My covenant for day and night stand not, and the fixed patterns of heaven and earth I have not established, then I would reject the descendants of Jacob and David My servant, not taking from his descendants rulers over the descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. But I will restore their fortunes and will have mercy on them.’” (NASB)

Jeremiah’s reputation as a prophet had become known to the Babylonian King. Remaining imprisoned in the court yard during the siege, Jeremiah was rescued by the command of none other than King Nebuchadnezzar!

Orders by Nebuchadnezzar to his top commander, Nebuzaradan, was to find the prophet during their attack of Jerusalem, protect him and do whatever he asked. Jeremiah was released in Gedaliah, given food and a gift.[20] On the other hand, Zedekiah tried to escape Nebuchadnezzar’s army, was captured and tortured.

The Book of Jeremiah issued numerous detailed prophecies, many that came true in a single lifetime. Are the future Branch promises of God issued through Jeremiah reliable prophecies about the Messiah and the regathering of Judah and Israel back in Jerusalem?


Updated July 18, 2023.

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[1] Jeremiah 1; 37:17.
[2] Jeremiah 3:6; chapters 1-15.
[3] Jeremiah 11-12.
[4]Jeremiah 17-18, 20, 26.
[5] Jeremiah 20:4-6. “Jehoiakim.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <>  “Jehoiachin.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <>
[6] CR II Chronicles 36:11-14; Jeremiah 3:2; 7:22-26, 31.
[7] CR Jeremiah 36:30-32.
[8] Irenaeus of Lyons. Against Heresies. Philip Schaf, ed. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Volume I. 2005.  Early Christina Writings. Book III, Chapter XXI.9-10, Chapter XXII.1-4. <>
[9] Jeremiah 24; 29; Daniel 1:4.
[10] Daniel 1.
[11] Chronicles 36:12; Jeremiah 27:20; 32:2; 37:1-2.  Bakon, Shimon. “Zedekiah: The Last King of Judah.” Jewish Bible Quarterly. Vol. 36, No. 2, 2008.   <>
[12] Jeremiah 37:13-16; 38:6, 13, 24-28.
[13] Jeremiah 38:1-6.
[14] Jeremiah 14:3; 38:5-6, 9.  “Jeremiah in the Cistern.” HeartofaReadyHeart. Image. 2009. <
[15] Jeremiah 37:21; 39:16-18.
[16] Jeremiah 37:17; 38:14. CR 37:3-10.
[17] Jeremiah 38:17.
[18] Isaiah 11:1, 53:2.
[19] Neubauer, Adolf, and Driver, Samuel Rolles.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters. 1877. Moses Maimonides.  “Letter to the South (Yemen).” pp 374-375. <>
[20] Jeremiah 39; 40; 43:6.

Maimonides & Jesus of Nazareth – the Messiah?


Born during the Medieval era in 1135 AD, Moses Ben Maimon came to be known by a single name: Maimonides. In Jewish circles, Maimonides is better known as Rambam, the Rabbi who brought clarity to Jewish Law with some calling him “the second Moses.”  

Author of Mishneh Torah, Maimonides’ book is considered to be a monumental Jewish work. It or he is responsible for formulating the 13 principals of Jewish faith.[1]

Messiah or stumbling block? Rabbi Maimonides expressed his view on this question about Jesus of Nazareth as well as thoughts on his lineage, supernatural powers, and provided a comparison to the Messiah prophecies.

Two chapters of Mishneh Torah focused on the Messiah. Chapters 11 and 12 names characteristics that would identify the Messiah (Mashiach) or would disqualify anyone purporting to be the Messiah.[2]

Considered controversial, his statements became a target of the Censor. As late as the 1990s portions of Chapter 11 were relegated only to footnotes and today requires deeper digging under the names Melachim uMilchamot or Mishneh Torah, Kings and Wars.

Explicitly in Chapter 11, Maimonides identified Balaam’s (Bilaam) prophecy as messianic. In a phrase-by-phrase commentary, he interpreted the prophecy as being in reference to Mashiach, Hebrew for Messiah:

“Reference to Mashiach is also made in the portion of Bilaam who prophesies about two anointed kings: the first anointed king, David, who saved Israel from her oppressors; and the final anointed king who will arise from his descendants and save Israel in the end of days. That passage Numbers 24:17-18 relates:

‘I see it, but not now’ – This refers to David;

‘I perceive it, but not in the near future;” – This refers to the Messianic king;

‘A star shall go forth from Jacob’ – This refers to David;

‘and a staff shall arise in Israel’ – This refers to the Messianic king…

Maimonides addressed the supernatural powers of performing miracles, wonders, and resurrection of the dead without directly mentioning the Gospels nor Jesus of Nazareth (though no one else is said to have raised the dead):

“One should not presume that the Messianic king must work miracles and wonders, bring about new phenomena in the world, resurrect the dead, or perform other similar deeds. This is definitely not true.”

Paying close attention to what the Rabbi said … performing supernatural abilities would not necessarily be a requirement for the Messiah; however, he did not deny that such miracles could be performed by the Messiah.

Going on to describe characteristics that would identify the Messiah when he arrived, the Rabbi expounded:

“If a king will arise from the House of David who diligently contemplates the Torah and observes its mitzvot as prescribed by the Written Law and the Oral Law as David, his ancestor, will compel all of Israel to walk in (the way of the Torah) and rectify the breaches in its observance, and fight the wars of God, we may, with assurance, consider him Mashiach.”

Agreeing with meaning of multiple prophecies, Maimonides agreed with Rabbi Rashi that a key prophetic requirement is that the Messiah must be born in the royal lineage of David. Maimonides added that anyone who denies the Messiah is denying the prophets, Moses, and the Scriptures:

“In the future, the Messianic king will arise and renew the Davidic dynasty, restoring it to its initial sovereignty.”

“Anyone who does not believe in him or does not await his coming, denies not only the statements of the other prophets, but those of the Torah and Moses…

Next, Maimonides described things that would disqualify anyone who might otherwise be viewed as the Messiah. Pointedly called out Jesus of Nazareth by name, the Jewish sage wrote:

“If he did not succeed to this degree or was killed, he surely is not the redeemer promised by the Torah. Rather, he should be considered as all the other proper and complete kings of the Davidic dynasty who died. God caused him to arise only to test the many, as Daniel 11:35 states: ‘And some of the wise men will stumble, to try them, to refine, and to clarify until the appointed time, because the set time is in the future.'”

“Jesus of Nazareth who aspired to be the Mashiach and was executed by the court was also alluded to in Daniel’s prophecies, as ibid. 11:14 states: ‘The vulgar among your people shall exalt themselves in an attempt to fulfill the vision, but they shall stumble.'”

“Can there be a greater stumbling block than Christianity?”

Royal lineage to King David was actually acknowledged by Maimonides when he implied Jesus was one of “all the other proper and complete kings of the Davidic dynasty who died.”[3] Denouncing Jesus, the Rabbi wrote that he and Christianity were a “stumbling block.”[4]

Contrary to another prophecy interpretation of Rabbi Rashi, a split faction of Rabbis in the Talmud believed the Zechariah 12:10 prophecy foretold the Messiah was to be killed. Interestingly, Maimonides remained silent on the prophecy.

Mishneh Torah launched Maimonides into Jewish celebrity status prompting letters sent to him with questions. His response letters, known as Responsa (or Teshuvot), have become additional important texts of Maimonides’ Scriptural interpretations.[5]

One Responsa was to Yeminite Rabbi Jacob al-Fayumi, known as the “Epistle Concerning Yemen.” In the letter, Maimonides regarded Zachariah 6:12 and the parashah of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 as messianic prophecies. He quoted from Isaiah 52:15 and 53:2 foretelling the Messiah could be identified by his origins and his wonders:[6]

“…all the kings of the earth be thrown in terror at the fame of him – their kingdoms be in consternation, and they themselves will be devising whether to oppose him with arms, or to adopt some different course, confessing, in fact their inability to contend with him or ignore his presence and so confounded at the wonders which they will see him work, that they will lay their hands to their mouth; in the words of Isaiah, when describing the manner in which the kings will hearken to him, At him kings will shut their mouth; for that which had not been told them have they seen, and that which they had not heard they have perceived. [Is. 52:15]

“What is to be the manner of Messiah’s advent, and where will be the place of his first appearance?

…there shall rise up one of whom none have known before, and the signs and wonders which they shall see performed by him will be the proofs of his true origin; for the Almighty where he declares to us his mind upon this matter, says, ‘Behold a man whose name is the Branch, and he shall branch forth out of his place’ (Zech. Vi. I2). And Isaiah speaks similarly of the time when he will appear, without his father or mother or family being known, He came up before him, and as a root out of the dry earth [Is 53:2], etc.”

All four Gospels are consistent with the Messiah characteristics defined by Maimonides.

Was Jesus of Nazareth a fulfillment of the Messiah prophecies or merely a stumbling block test sent by God?


Updated December 31, 2023.


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[1] Maimonides. Mishneh Torah. Jewish year 4937 (1177 AD). “The Rambam’s Mishneh Torah.” <>   Rich, Tracey R. “Jewish Beliefs.” n.d. <>  “Moses Ben Maimon.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <>  Furst, Rachel. “The Mishneh Torah.” 2010. <>  Seeskin, Kenneth. “Maimonides.” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. revised 2017. <>  Maimonides statue. Wikimedia Commons. image. n.d. <
[2] Maimonides, Moses. Mishneh Torah.  Ed. Yechezkal Shimon Gutfreund, Brooklyn, NY:  Sichos in English. “The Law Concerning Moshiach.” n.d. <>  Maimonides. Mishneh Torah. “uMilchamot, the Laws of Kings and Their War.” 2015. <>  Maimonides. Mishneh Torah. 2023. “Mishneh Torah, Kings and Wars.” <,_Kings_and_Wars?tab=contents
[3] Josephus, Flavius. Against Apion. Book 1 #6-7. The Complete Works of Josephus. <>
[4] Mangel, Nissen. “Responsa.” Publisher:  Kehot Publication Society. 2008. 2014.  <>
[5] Mangel.“Responsa.”
[6] Maimonides. “Letter to the South (Yemen)”. p374.  Neubauer and Driver.  The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters <> CR “Iggerot HaRambam, Iggeret Teiman.” responsa. n.d. <>  “Responsa.” “The Epistle Concerning Yemen.”n.d.<>