King Herod’s Death Year – 4 BC or 1 BC?
King Herod’s death occurred shortly after the birth of Jesus of Nazareth making it the lynch pin date used to determine his birth year of Jesus. Referenced in the Nativity accounts of Matthew and Luke, Jesus of Nazareth was born during the lifetimes of three historical personages – Augustus, Herod and Quirinius. Not without controversy, the death year of Herod has posed a challenge for believers and detractors alike.
Antiquity had no standardized calendar, instead timelines and dates are linked to well-known historical events. Establishing the date of Herod’s death requires piecing together such clues as the reigns of Tiberius, King Herod and his sons; the Battle of Actium; the Jewish religious calendar; astronomical data, etc.
Adding another level of complexity is “inclusive reckoning,” the question of whether a partial year was counted as a full year in historical references. The unsettled question instills a plus or minus factor of a year.
Herod’s death year is commonly calculated by historians using Josephus’ reference in Antiquities to his son, Philip, who began his regional Judean reign after the King died as did his two brothers Antipas and Aristobulus.
“…Philip, Herod’s brother, departed this life, in the twentieth year of the reign of Tiberius after he had been tetrarch of Trachonitis, and Gaulonitis, and of the nation of Bataneana also thirty-seven years. – Josephus
Tiberius began his reign in 14 AD, then adding 20 years lands in 34 AD to establish the year of Philip’s death. Subtracting 37 years of Philip’s rule backdates to the commonly accepted year for King Herod’s death in 4 BC.
Josephus bookends Herod’s final days starting with a lunar eclipse, then died a few weeks later just before the approaching Passover. The historian described in great detail events that occurred in the interim.
Drama of Herod’s final days is better than most movie scripts. A gripping scene in Jerusalem begins with rumors that Herod had died inciting insurrectionists to remove the long-hated sacrilege of Rome’s golden eagle insignia Herod had mounted over the Temple’s main gate.
Unfortunately for the insurrectionists, the King was not yet dead. Herod had the High Priest removed from office and 40 insurrectionists burned alive. That very night was marked by a lunar eclipse.
Herod’s loathsome protruding bowels and gangrenous groin condition worsened. His physicians recommended therapy in the warm baths of Callirrhoe, a 2-day journey from Jerusalem across the Jordan River. Gaining no relief from the warm springs, his physicians recommended soaking in a full vat of oil at his palace in Jericho.
Treatments failed and Herod welcomed the relief that death would bring. Preparing for one final chapter in his life, the King sent letters throughout Judea summoning all “principal men” to Jericho:
“all the principal men of the entire Jewish nation, wheresoever they lived, should be called to him…a great number that came, because the whole nation was called, and all men heard of this call, and death was the penalty of such as should despise the epistles.”
In the interim, misery overcame the King who decided to hasten the inevitable by suicide with a kitchen carving knife. His cousin saw what was about to happen, grabbed the King’s hand and began screaming.
Echoing screams throughout the halls of the palace were misinterpreted that Herod had died touching off a great wailing lamentation. Herod’s imprisoned eldest son, Antipater, believing a twist of fate had now posited the kingdom into his grasp, promised his jailer fortunes to release him immediately. Instead, the jailer informed Herod who became enraged, beat his head and ordered Antipater to be promptly executed.
Herod died 5 days later after Antipater’s execution. News of the King’s death spread across Judea and to other nations. International dignitaries and top military personnel including centurions, captains and officers; and full regiments of the Thracians, Germans, Galatians and Gauls all outfitted in full battle gear traveled to the King’s funeral in Jericho. An elaborate funeral and burial in Herodium took many days.
Meanwhile, a funeral bier was built of gold embroidered by “very precious stones of a great variety” and lined with purple material “of various contexture.” His burial was followed by a 7-day morning period, then a feast for the people of Judea. Some experts question whether all these things could have occurred in the span of only 4 weeks if Herod died in 4 BC…
Consultant and Biblical hobbyist, David Beyer, compared the 1544 Gutenberg printings of Antiquities to two dozen older, handwritten manuscripts predating Gutenburg. He discovered all older handwritten Antiquities manuscripts said that Philip died in the 22nd year of Tiberius, not the 20th year. This discovery changes the traditional year of Herod’s death to the 2-1 BC timeframe.
Two historical works by Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews and Wars of the Jews, back up Beyer’s discovery. Antiquities documents that Tiberius died after serving as Caesar “twenty-two years, five months and three days,” historically dated to early 37 AD. Philip, a son of King Herod, reigned for 37 years placing King Herod’s death in 1 BC.
Agrippa traveled to Rome a year before the death of Tiberius, 36 AD. After saying to Caligula in a carriage ride that he wished Tiberius would die, the carriage driver told Tiberius who had Agrippa thrown into prison. Six months later with Tiberius’ death, Caligula (Caius/Gaius) gave Philip’s tetrarchy to Agrippa, 37 AD.
Wars marked the Battle of Actium in the 7th year of Herod’s reign. The Battle of Actium is academically recognized as occurring in the year 31 BC. Simple math backdates the beginning of Herod’s reign to 38 BC thereby placing Herod’s death in 1 BC.
Historian Dr. Gerard Gertoux’s different calculation arrived at similar results. Since Herod was 70-years old when he died, Gertoux determined his death occurred sometime between April, 2 BC, and March, 1 BC.
NASA lunar eclipse data for Jerusalem shows that a partial, less-than-half lunar eclipse did occur on March 13th, 4 BC. Passover that year fell on April 10th, just four weeks later. However, a full lunar eclipse appeared over Jerusalem January 9-10, 1 BC, and the Passover was observed on April 6th, twelve and half weeks later.
Historical records, archeological discoveries and astronomy data each conclude the death of Herod occurred in the 1-2 BC timeframe corroborating the Matthew and Luke account timelines. 4 weeks vs. 12 weeks – did Herod’s death actually occur in 1 BC or the traditionally accepted year of 4 BC?
Updated May 15, 2022.
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