Horrors of Death By Crucifixion
Jesus of Nazareth was crucified and died on the cross according to all four Gospels. In contradiction, some opposing theories say that even if he was crucified, Jesus did not actually die on the cross.[i] If Jesus did not die by crucifixion, it disqualifies the Gospel claim that on the third day after his death, he was resurrected.Understanding the Roman crucifixion process can help role determine the truth.
The Roman capital death penalty by crucifixion followed a well-honed process. Crucifixion can be described in no less than graphic terms. As a matter of fact, the word “excruciating” is derived from the word “crucify” or “crux” meaning cross.[ii]
Cicero andJosephus depictions of crucifixion have been corroborated through scientific examination.[iii]Doctorate and PhD level research in the fields of forensics, pathology and medicine on Roman scourging and crucifixion articulates the horrific consequences to the victim.[iv]
First, the victim was flogged or scourged by a multi-tipped whip containing fragments of metal or bone intended to rip the flesh of the victim. It inflicted terrible pain and weakened the victim through loss of blood causing severe dehydration and thirst, induced shock and could even lead to death before the actual crucifixion.
Next, it is believed the condemned were often forced to carry their own patibulum (crossbeams) weighing about 75 to 125 pounds down the long trek to a conspicuous public place of execution outside the city walls. There awaited upright posts or stipes left in place, as historical evidence suggests, because of the frequency of use and scarcity of wood.
Once at the execution site, the fated souls were stripped of clothing by the execution detail, forced down onto the ground in their open wounds, and affixed to the patibulum by nails possibly along with ropes. The patibulum was then fitted onto the upright stipes where the job was finished by nailing the feet to the stipes.
Crucifixion victims, shredded by flogging, were left to endure a humiliating and slow death suffering from severe dehydration, exposure and unspeakable pain. The consequence of hanging by extended arms added excruciating pain to the act of breathing with each breath pulling at the nail wounds driven through nerves in the wrists and having to push up full body weight on nailed feet.
Hypothermia would have added to the misery with the average 59° April temperature in Jerusalem, ranging from lows of 49°F to highs of 70°F. The Gospels report that the crucifixion of Jesus began at 9:00am which was shortly after reaching the nightly low temperature. Exposure was compounded by wind chill, moisture from blood and sweat, and the severe injuries inflicted by scourging and being nailed to the cross.[v]
If the physical torture wasn’t enough, there was the mental torment of humiliation by being stripped of clothing and hanging from the cross at a high traffic location as a spectacle for staring passers-by who, along with the Roman soldiers, shouted insults at the victim. Hanging defenseless and fully exposed on the cross, the sufferer was subject to becoming living carrion for scavenging birds.
Victims most likely died from hypovolemic shock (blood circulation complications) or a combination of other factors. [vi] Death was believed to be hastened by breaking the legs of the victim such as mentioned in the Gospel accounts of the two thieves crucified with Jesus.
Roman judicial crucifixions were overseen by an execution squad made up of a centurion, exactor mortis, and four soldiers known as a quaternion.[vii] The centurion was in charge of the execution and responsible for reporting back to the governing authority that the execution had been completed.[viii] Failure to complete his duty could have dire consequences – survival of a crucifixion victim was not an option.[ix]
Archeological evidence of a crucifixion was found in an ancient cemetery excavated in 1968 by Vassilios Tzaferis of the Israel Department of Antiquities.[x] Pottery shards in the tomb dated to the period that followed King Herod’s dynasty up to 70 AD. One adult male’s remains were identified by anthropologists to have died by crucifixion, his heel bone pierced by a bent 4.5 inch nail.
Remains of the olive wood cross were still attached to the nail between the bend and the heel bone as well as a remnant of the acacia or pistacia wooden plaque between the head of the nail and outside of the heel bone. The lower leg bones had been broken by a sharp blow.
Forensic, pathology, and medical research on Roman crucifixion; antiquity historical references; an archeological discovery with anthropology research validated by Israeli antiquity authorities all remarkably corroborate the circumstances of the crucifixion details in the Gospel accounts.
How believable are the Gospel reports that Jesus of Nazareth died by means of crucifixion on the cross?
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Gospel accounts of the crucifixion of Jesus: Matthew 27:26-56; Mark 15:15-41; Luke 23:20-49; John 19:1-35.
[i] Shah, Zia. “Jesus did not die on the cross!” For Christians, To be Born Again in Islam! 2012. <https://islamforwest.org/article/jesus-did-not-die-on-the-cross rel=”nofollow”> Quran 4:157, Pickthall translation. <http://www.islam101.com/quran/QTP/index.htm > Hill, Kate, “The Physical Death of Jesus Christ: The “Swoon Theory” and the Medical Response.” 2015. Providence College. <http://digitalcommons.providence.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1000&context=faith_science_2015> Samuelsson, Gunnar. Crucifixion in Antiquity. 2011. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. <https://www.academia.edu/4167205/Crucifixion_in_Early_Christianityrel=”nofollow”>
[ii] “excruciating.” Dictionary.com. 2017. <http://www.dictionary.com> “crucifixion.” Merriam-Webster. 2017 <http://www.merriam-webster.com>
[iii] Cicero. Secondary Orations Against Verres, Book 5, Chapter LXVI. Zias, Joe. “Crucifixion in Antiquity – The Anthropological Evidence.” Joe.Zias.com. 2009. Archive.org. <http://web.archive.org/web/20121211060740/http://www.joezias.com/CrucifixionAntiquity.html> Josephus, Flavius. The Life of Flavius Josephus. #75. Google Books. n.d. <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[iv] “Flagellation.” Ed. Greg Mulhauser. PhD. MedLibrary.org. n.d. <http://medlibrary.org/medwiki/Flogging> Zugibe, Frederick T., PhD. “Turin Lecture: Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion.” E-Forensic Medicine. 2005. <http://web.archive.org/web/20130925103021/http://e-forensicmedicine.net/Turin2000.htm> Cilliers, L. & Retief F. P. “The history and pathology of crucifixion”, U.S. National Library of Medicine|National Institute of Health. Dec;93(12):938-41. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14750495> Maslen and Mitchell, “Medical theories on the cause of death in crucifixion.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2006. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14750495>
[v] “Weather in April in Jerusalem.” Climatemps.com. <http://www.jerusalem.climatemps.com/april.php> “Jerusalem.” HolidayWeather.com. <http://www.holiday-weather.com/jerusalem/averages/april> McCullough, Lynne, M.D. and Arora, Sanjay, M.D. AAFP.org. 2004 Dec 15. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1215/p2325.html> . Li, James, M.D. “Hypothermia.” Sep 09, 2016. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/770542-overview#a5>
[vi] Cilliers & Retief. “The history and pathology of crucifixion.” Zugibe. “Turin Lecture – Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion.” Maslen and Mitchell. “Medical theories on the cause of death in crucifixion.” Alchin, Linda. “Roman Crucifixion.” Tribunes and Triumphs. 2008. <http://www.tribunesandtriumphs.org/roman-life/roman-crucifixion.htm> Zias. “Crucifixion in Antiquity – The Anthropological Evidence.” Champlain, Edward. Nero. 2009. Google Books. <https://books.google.com/books?id=30Wa-l9B5IoC&lpg=PA122&ots=nw4edgV_xw&dq=crucifixion%2C%20tacitus&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false> Zugibe. “Turin Lecture – Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion.” Zias. “Crucifixion in Antiquity – The Anthropological Evidence.” Geberth, Vernon J. “State Sponsored Torture in Rome: A Forensic Inquiry and Medicolegal Analysis of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.” 2012. <www.practicalhomicide.com/Research/Rome2012.doc>
[vii] Zugibe. “Turin Lecture – Forensic and Clinical Knowledge of the Practice of Crucifixion.”
[viii] Santala, Risto. The Messiah In The New Testament In The Light Of Rabbinical Writings. Trans. William Kinnaird. “Jesus Before The Representatives of the Roman State.” 1993. <http://www.kolumbus.fi/risto.santala/rsla/Nt/index.html> Swete, Henry Barclay. The Gospel According to St. Mark, The Greek Text with Notes and Indices. 1902. Google Books. <https://books.google.com/books?id=WcYUAAAAQAAJ&lpg=PA127&ots=f_TER300kY&dq=Seneca%20centurio%20supplicio%20pr%C3%A6positus&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[ix] Seneca, Lucius Annaeus. “Seneca’s Essays Volume I.” Moral Essays. Book III. “To Novatus on Anger+.” Book I. The Stoic Legacy to the Renaissance. <http://www.stoics.com/seneca_essays_book_1.html#ANGER1> Josephus, Flavius. Wars of the Jews. Book VI, Chapter IV, Chapter VII. Google Books. n.d. <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[x] Shanks, Hershel. “Crucifixion Bone Fragment, 21 CE.” The Center for Online Judaic Studies. 2004. <http://cojs.org/crucifixion_bone_fragment-_21_ce>