What are the odds the circumstances surrounding the life and death of Jesus of Nazareth that correspond with many ancient prophecies was just a coincidence?

 

Herod’s Death, a Lunar Eclipse and Passover – What Year?

King Herod died between a lunar eclipse and the Passover, according to Josephus.[1]Matthew and Luke Gospels say Herod was alive when Jesus of Nazareth was born in Bethlehem; Matthew adding the King died before Joseph and Mary with their child Jesus came out of hiding in Egypt.[2]

Establishing the date of the lunar eclipse through the science of astronomy would substantiate Josephus’ historical account, more so corroborate the Gospel accounts and establish the birth year of Jesus of Nazareth.

 “But Herod deprived this Matthias of the high priesthood, and burnt the other Matthias, who had raised a sedition with his companions, alive. And that very night, there was an eclipse of the moon.” [3]

  “…and when the public morning for the king was over…at the feast of unleavened bread, which was now at hand, and is by the Jews called the Passover…”[4] – Josephus

Secular history has long advocated the year of King Herod’s death as 4 BC.[5] That year is reckoned from published copies of Josephus’ Antiquities going back to 1544 saying one of Herod’s sons, Philip, died in the 20th year of the reign of Tiberius after ruling for 37 years.[6]

Two of Herod’s sons, Antipas and Archelaus, had both laid claim to the throne after the King died.[7] Caesar, a beneficiary of millions from Herod’s will, heard their appeals in Rome.[8] Augustus’ delayed Solomon-esk decision split the kingdom to be ruled by the three sons of Herod rather than a single king – Archelaus to rule over one-half of Judea including Jerusalem, Philip and Antipas to rule over the other half of the kingdom.[9]

Tiberius reigned as Caesar from 14-37 AD taking the reverse calculation of the beginning of Philip’s 37-year rule to 4 BC, the year of Herod’s death.[10] Key to this timeline for historians is a lunar eclipse that coincided with the traditional Antiquities date reckoning.

NASA lunar eclipse data for Jerusalem confirms a partial, less-than-half lunar eclipse occurred on March 13, 4 BC, between 1:32am and 3:50am. Slightly less than four weeks later, Passover fell on April 10th.[11]

Upending the 4 BC date reckoning was Biblical hobbyist David Beyer. He traveled to the various libraries around the world holding older handwritten copies of Antiquities and uncovered that all handwritten copies originally stated Philip died in the 22nd year of the reign of Tiberius. The discovery adjusts the beginning of Philip’s rule to the years of 2-1 BC, the time of Herod’s death.

January 9, 1 BC, a full lunar eclipse began over Jerusalem at 10:22pm spanning to 3:53am, January 10th.[12] NASA’s astronomy data is a potential game-changing fact aligning with the adjusted 2-1 BC date reckoning for Herod’s death based on Beyer’s discovery. The Passover in 1 BC was observed on April 6th, twelve and half weeks later.[13]

Archeological, historical and astronomy records tracing to 2 BC coincide with other Gospel timeline events. The Silver Anniversary of Caesar Augustus and his Pater Patriae registration decree; archeological discoveries of Quirinius governing in Syria; and the Battle of Actium marking the beginning date of Herod’s reign all land in the 2-1 BC time frame.[14] NASA’s data also shows a rare planetary conjunction formed an extraordinary, elongated star in June, 2 BC.

Aside from the partial lunar eclipse in 4 BC, finding other known secular historical events to corroborate that year’s timeline has proved to be challenging. Attempts to explain the registration decree by Augustus and Quirinius governing in Syria have required complicated, varying explanations.[15] Astronomical events that could explain “His star” took place in previous years.

One historical factor may tip the scales in favor of the actual year. Josephus described in detail events that transpired between the lunar eclipse and the Passover.  A question about the 4 BC timeline, could all these events have taken place in less than four weeks or would the twelve and half weeks in 1 BC be more realistic?

Herod’s loathsome bowel and gangrenous groin condition compelled him to seek therapy in the warm baths of Callirrhoe, a 2-day journey from Jerusalem across the Jordan River. Gaining no relief, he soaked in a full vat of oil at his palace in Jericho.[16] After all treatments failed, Herod welcomed the relief of death.

Letters were sent by Herod summoning “all the principal men of the entire Jewish nation” to his palace in Jericho [17] Surmising the people would all rejoice at his death, the king had the “principal men” locked inside the Jericho hippodrome and gave orders to have them killed with darts as soon as he died.[18]

The cruel nature of Herod worsened – to ensure that the whole nation would fall into deep mourning, he also plotted to kill one member of each family in Judea.[19] Diverting his attention from this connivance, a letter from Caesar temporarily uplifted his spirits.[20] Acme, Herod’s wicked daughter-in-law, had been executed and Caesar granted the King permission to either banish or execute her husband, Herod’s own hated son, Antipater.

Hastening the anticipated relief of death, Herod attempted suicide. His cousin happened upon the act, intervened and began screaming which echoed through the halls of the palace. Antipater, thinking Herod had died, tried to bribe the jailer for his release; the jailer instead told Herod who had Antipater immediately executed.[20]

Five days after Antipater’s execution, Herod succumbed to his wretched fatal condition.[22] All these things occurred after the eclipse up unto Herod’s death. What transpired next before the Passover would have taken even more weeks.

Fortunately for the principle men of Judea locked in the Hippodrome, Herod’s order to kill them after he died was not carried out. Salome, Herod’s sister, and her husband told the guards the king had changed his mind before he died.

Many traveled to the funeral in Jericho from throughout Judea including 500 domestic servants and freed men; from other countries were foreign dignitaries and militaries.[23] Slowly, the funeral procession lasted for many days to Herod’s final resting place in Herodium 30 miles away.[24]

Archelaus afterwards extended the mourning period to seven days followed by giving a feast for all the people.[25] Soon thereafter, chaos and sedition broke out in the days approaching the Passover with passions still simmering from Herod’s executions of the Jewish insurrectionists weeks earlier. Archelaus dispatched military forces to quell the unrest resulting in the death of 3000 rebels. During the Passover, Archelaus along with his family, sailed away to Rome to escape the threatening chaos.[26]

A partial lunar eclipse in 4 BC followed by the Passover less than 4 weeks later vs. a full lunar eclipse in 1 BC with the Passover 12½ later – which timeline marked by a lunar eclipse makes the most sense for the actual death year of Herod and consistent with the Gospels?

 

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews. Book XVII, Chapters VI, XIX Trans. and commentary.  William Whitson.  The Complete Works of Josephus. 1850.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>  CR Josephus, Flavius. Wars of the Jews. Book I, Chapter XXXIII. Trans. and commentary. William Whitson. The Complete Works of Josephus. 1850. <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[2] Matthew 2; Luke 1.
[3] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VI.4
[4] Josephus. Wars. Book II, Chapter 1.2-3
[5] Bernegger, P.M. “Affirmation of Herod’s Death in 4 B.C.” Journal of Theological Studies Vol. 34, no 2, pp 526-531. 1983.  RedatedKings.com. n.d.  <http://www.redatedkings.com/postings/Bernegger.pdf>  Martin, Ernest L. The Star of Bethlehem – The Star That Astonished the World. Chapter 13. 2003. <http://askelm.com/star/star000.htm#_edn11%3E%20%3Chttp://web.archive.org/web/20170111193244/http://www.askelm.com/star/star001.htm>  Schurer, Emil.  A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ. Volume 1. pp 400, 416. <http://books.google.com/books?id=BRynO3W9FPcC&pg=PP1#v=snippet&q=Tiberius&f=false>
[6] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapters IV.6; V.4.  Beyer, David W.  “Josephus Reexamined:  Unraveling the Twenty-Second Year of Tiberius.” Chronos, Kairos, Christos II. 1998.   <http://books.google.com/books?id=mWnYvI5RdLMC&lpg=PP1&dq=isbn%3A0865545820&pg=PA85#v=snippet&q=beyer&f=false>
[7] Josephus. Antiquities. Book VII, Chapter IX.  Josephus. Wars. Book II, Chapter II.
[8] Josephus. Antiquities. Book VII, Chapter VIII.
[9] Matthew 14:3; Mark 6; Luke 3:1.  Josephus. Antiquities. Book VII, Chapters IX, XI.  Josephus. Wars. Book II, Chapters II, VI.
[10] “Tiberius.” BBC. 2014. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/tiberius.shtml> Schurer. A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ. p. 358.
[11] Espenak, Fred. “Javascript Lunar Eclipse Explorer.” NASA Eclipse Website. n.d.  Asia and Asia Minor – Jerusalem, Israel. Century Selection -0001 – 0100. <https://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/JLEX/JLEX-AS.html>  Kidger, Mark R.  “The Date of Passover 11BC – 10AD.” Mark Kidger`s Comet and Asteroid Observing Home Page. n.d.  <http://www.observadores-cometas.com/cometas/Star/Passover.html>
[12] Espenak. “Javascript Lunar Eclipse Explorer.”  NASA Eclipse Website. n.d.  Asia and Asia Minor – Jerusalem, Israel. Century Selection -0001 – 0100.  Espenak. “NASA TP-2009-214172.” n.d.  <https://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/5MCLEmap/-0099-0000/LE0000-01-10T.gif>
[13] Kidger, Mark R.  “The Date of Passover 11BC – 10AD.”  Mark Kidger`s Comet and Asteroid Observing Home Page.
[14] Gertoux, Gerard. “Dating the two Censuses of Quirinius.” 2018. Academia.edu.  <http://www.academia.edu/3184175/Dating_the_two_Censuses_of_Quirinius>  Josephus. Antiquities.  Book XVII. Chapter VII.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII; Book II, Chapter XIX.  “Augustus.”  UNRV History |The Roman Empire. United Nations of Roma Victrix. 2017.  <http://www.unrv.com/fall-republic/augustus.php;
[15] Davis, John D. “Quirinius” (Quirinus), cwui-rin’i-us, Publius Sulpicious.” The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Vol. IX: Petri – Reuchlin. 1953. <http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc09/htm/iv.vi.xii.htm>  Ramsay, William M.  “Was Christ Born in Bethlehem?” Chapter 11. 2010. <http://biblehub.com/library/ramsay/was_christ_born_in_bethlehem/index.html> Schaff, Philip. “Chronology of the Life of Christ.” History of the Christian Church, Volume I: Apostolic Christianity. A.D. 1-100. Chapter 2. 1890.  Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 1 June 2005. <http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/hcc1.i.II_1.16.html> Sieffert, F. “Census.” The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Vol. II:  Basilica – Chambers. 1952. <http://www.ccel.org/s/schaff/encyc/encyc02/htm/iv.vi.ccxxx.htm>
[16] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VI. Josephus.  Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII. “Tulul Abul Alayiq (Herodian Jericho) – Jericho.”  This Week in Palestine. Issue No. 102, October 2006.  <http://www.thisweekinpalestine.com/details.php?id=1948&ed=132&edid=132>  “Callirrhoe.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/3933-callirrhoe>  “Map of New Testament Israel.”  Bible-history.com. Map. n.d. <http://www.bible-history.com/geography/ancient-israel/israel-first-century.html
[17] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VI.5. CR Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII.
[18] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VI.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII.
[19] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VI.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII.
[20] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VII.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII.
[21] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VII.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII.
[22] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVIII, Chapter VII.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII.
[23] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VIII.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII.
[24] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VIII, * footnote.  Josephus. Wars. Book I, Chapter XXXIII.  “Highways and Roads of Palestine.” Bible-history.com. Map. n.d. <https://www.bible-history.com/geography/ancient-israel/herodium.html>
[25] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter VIII.  Josephus. Wars. Book II, Chapter I.
[26] Josephus. Antiquities. Book XVII, Chapter IX-X.  Josephus. Wars. Book II, Chapter I-II.

What Signs Did the Magi See As “His Star”?

Magi saw “His star” signaling the birth of the “King of the Jews” – something so moving they walked hundreds of miles to “worship” him. What did the Magi see? Clearly, in the Jesus of Nazareth Nativity as described by Matthew, the Magi had read signs in the night sky saying to King Herod:

MT 2:1-2 “…‘Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the East and have come to worship Him.’” (NASB, NKJV)

MT 2:9-10 “…behold, the star which they had seen in the East went before them…When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy. (NKJV)

Astrology, astronomy or was it something else?[1] Astrology is the belief that celestial bodies influence a person’s journey in life where horoscopes define a personality, successes, sorrows, challenges – a life’s destiny.[2] Astronomy is a science where positions of stars and planets follow a predictive path that can be charted past, present and future – no mystical meaning in the science.[3]

Zoroastrian theology of the Magi did not believe astrology determined a person’s future, rather a person’s spirit was chosen through a chain of decisions by the age of 15. It was a freewill choice result.[4] On the other hand, the Magi believed every planet has a significance.[5]

Going back millennia from the Assyrians and Babylonians down through the Greeks and Romans, planet-stars and certain fixed stars had names of gods varing by culture and language.[6] As these symbolic celestial bodies moved through the night sky, stargazer Magi viewed their interactions as having earthly significance.[7] Through a series of signs a story unfolded where one sign was associated with the next ultimately portraying a particular outcome.[8]

Unknown to many, Hebrew scholars have long accepted a belief that during creation God instilled the 12 constellations with influences in world events.[9] Man abused this knowledge by worshiping the stars instead of God thus He made it a forbidden practice.[10]

“The study of the universe as a whole was, like all other sciences in olden times, held in closest connection with religion, and was cultivated in the interest of the latter. The starworld was to the heathen an object of worship, but not to the Jews, whether national or Hellenized. With this reverence there was connected a superstition that the stars determined the destiny of man…It is obvious, therefore, that the Astronomy of the Talmudists [Jewish biblical sages] could not be an independent science any more than that of the Babylonians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, or of all other nations of antiquity or of the medieval ages: it was a department of knowledge belonging to theology.”[11] –Jewish Encyclopedia

Knowing how the Magi and the Hebrews viewed the constellations, the planets, their meaning and significance of their interactions serves as a key to solving the mystery of “His star.” By tying this information to the incredible factual astronomy events that played out on the night’s stage during the final years of the BC era, several theories  emerge that could possibly identify the star.

One is the comet star theory when two comets were observed, first in 5 BC lasting for 70 days and then a second tailless comet visible during a single night on April 24, 4 BC.[12] Another theory cites ancient Chinese records telling of a nova burst in the constellation Aquila the Eagle in 5 BC.

The comet theory has to overcome the fact that these were distinctly two very different visual events – one comet with a tail lasting for weeks; the other without a tail lasting for a single night. A nova is an explosion of a star creating a temporary brightening of the star before it fades back to a fainter state.[13] The nova theory is challenging in that it was a one-star, one-time event.

A popular theory is based on a series of conjunctions during the 7-6 BC timeframe involving very close proximity Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunctions. The trifecta took place inside the constellation Pisces, the Fish, on May 29, September 29 and December 5 of 7 BC and was followed by a massing of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn in 6 BC.[14] Jupiter and Saturn also twice came into close conjunction with the Moon.[15] Problematic for this scenario is that it does not offer an explanation for a single “star” having to rely heavily on astrological interpretation.

Rarity would be a factor since the Jupiter-Saturn triple conjunction was only the third since 562 BC. The scenario also had Babylonian astrology implications by taking place inside the constellation Pisces known to the Babylonians as Nunu.[16]

Pisces the Fish constellation, considered to be the house of Jupiter, is associated with water and rain making the Earth fruitful.[17] In the Hebrew Zodiac, Pisces is the twelfth sign called Dagim that falls in the twelfth Jewish month of Adar, and is one of the three constellations of the East.[18] Dagim represents fertility and pregnancy; a blessing. Adar is the month of joy holding the last holiday of the year, Purim, the celebration of hidden miracles and sets the stage for the month Nisan and the Passover.[19]

One starry scenario theory took place in 3-2 BC hitting squarely on several points, one that provides an astronomy science explanation for “His star;” matches the 2 BC timeline for the Caesar Augustus Pater Patriae registration decree; and deftly fits with the Magi’s view of cosmic signs. Seven extraordinarily close-proximity conjunctions tell an intriguing allegorical story that cannot be easily ignored.

An 18-month series of rare conjunctions began in 3 BC with the .67˚ Saturn-Mercury conjunction. Saturn was known as Ninib, Babylonian god of fertility, and Mercury as Nebo, “the messenger of the gods,” the god of record-keeping and scribe who delivered messages to the mortals.[20] In this scene, the messenger to mortals and the scribe record-keeper god met with the fertility god.

Three weeks later came the .12˚ conjunction between Saturn and Venus who was the Babylonian’s divine personification of the goddess Ishtar, a composite goddess who had many attributes. Venus was the queen of heaven, the mother goddess, the goddess of love, marriage and childbirth.[21] Here, figuratively the god of fertility had met with the goddess queen.

Two months later, queen Venus made extremely close contact with its .07˚ conjunction with Jupiter, the king planet known to the Babylonians as Marduk, the patron god of creation.[22] The symbolic coming together of the king and queen is modestly obvious. Would the Magi have seen this as the sign of a royal conception? The two would meet again 9 months later.

Perhaps the Wise Men could have chalked this all up to coincidence…until a month later. In just a half-tick of the comic clock, they saw where king Jupiter left his visitation with queen Venus to begin a triple conjunction with the star Regulus.

Considered to be the king of stars that ruled the affairs of the heavens, Regulus was to the Persians the leader of the Four Royal stars, the four Guardians of Heaven.[23] As the brightest and chief star in the center of the constellation Leo the Lion, Regulus was known as the Heart of the Lion.[24] The star’s Babylonian name was “Sharru,” meaning the ‘breast, heart’ of the lion; in Hebrew, Sharru-ukin means “king; legitimate, true.”[25]

Leo is considered to be a royal constellation because of its status at the head of the Zodiac calendar dominated by king star Regulus and its direct path to the sun.[26] Well-known to the stargazers of the ancient world, Leo was called “Ser” or “Shī” by the Persians and “Arū” by the Babylonians, all meaning Lion.[27]

Over the next eight months since the Jupiter-Venus conjunction, Jupiter’s triple conjunction path revolved around Regulus where, in essence, the king planet circled a ring around the king star of the heavens. Taking place in the heart of Leo the Lion, the natal sign of Judah, this triple conjunction may have signaled the Magi where to find the new king.[28]

Jupiter moved from circling Regulus directly back to a reunion with Venus, 9 months since the last, for the striking appearance of a partial overlapping conjunction on June 17, 2 BC. Not a surprise to the Magi who would have anticipated its appearance, yet if this second Jupiter-Venus Conjunction was the second appearance of “His star” while the Magi were in Jerusalem, they reacted with “exceedingly great joy” when they actually saw it.

Appearing unannounced at the palace of Herod, the King did not question the declaration of the Magi whose centuries old reputation preceded them – renowned for their expertise in reading the stars and, according to Plato, as “king makers.”[29] Herod acted on the Magi’s information as fact, consulted with Jewish religious experts on prophecy, then focused his attention on Bethlehem wanting to know when “His star” had appeared.

Was the sign of “His Star” announced by the Magi to King Herod in his Judean palace actually the conjunctions of Jupiter and Venus in 3 and 2 BC?

 

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

[1] Clevenger, John. “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.”  Lake County (Illinois) Astronomical Society. 2012. <http://www.lcas-astronomy.org/articles/display.php?filename=the_christmas_star&category=miscellaneous>  
[2] “astrology.” Merriam-Webster. 2018. <https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/astrology> “astrology.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/topic/astrology>
[3] “astronomy.” Merriam-Webster. 2018. <https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/astronomy> “astronomy.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/science/astronomy>  Redd, Nola Taylor. Space.com. 2017. <https://www.space.com/16014-astronomy.html>
[4] Eduljee, K. E. “Is Zoroastrianism a Religion, Philosophy, Way-of-Life…? The Spirit.” Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/05/is-zoroastrianism-religion-philosophy.html>  Eduljee, K. E.  “Introduction. Zoroastrianism & Astrology.” n.d. <http://zoroastrianastrology.blogspot.com/>
[5] “Every Planet Has a Meaning.” Magi Society. Lesson 3. 2008. <http://www.magiastrology.com/lesson1.html>
[6]   Eduljee, K. E. “Zoroastrian-Persian Influence on Greek Philosophy and Sciences.”  Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/04/zoroastrian-influence-on-greek.html>  Eduljee, K. E. “Astrology & Zoroastrianism,” Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/04/astrology-zoroastrianism.html>
[7] Eduljee, K. E. “Greek Perceptions of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism & the Magi.” #2, #33. Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/04/greek-perceptions-of-zoroaster.html> “Magi Astronomy.” Magi Society. 2008. <http://www.magiastrology.com/lesson3.html> Humphreys, Colin J. “The Star of Bethlehem – a Comet in 5 BC – And the Date and Birth of Christ.” pp 390-391. SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS). 1991. <http://adsbit.harvard.edu//full/1991QJRAS..32..389H/0000391.000.html>
[8] Dickinson, David. “Is This Month’s Jupiter-Venus Pair Really a Star of Bethlehem Stand In?” Universe Today. October 14, 2015. <https://www.universetoday.com/122738/is-this-months-jupiter-venus-pair-really-a-star-of-bethlehem-stand-in/>  Roberts, Courtney. The Star of the Magi: The Mystery That Heralded the Coming of Christ. pp. 70-71. <https://books.google.com/books?id=480FI6lj3UkC&pg=PA145&lpg=PA145&dq=magi+signs+in+the+sky&source=bl&ots=wQlvIonSLe&sig=yX-toR4CMY1JnebNxQjvYVpHHnc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwj9vsaQlonfAhUInKwKHYG5D144FBDoATABegQICBAB#v=onepage&q=magi&f=false>
[9] “Astrology.” Jewish Virtual Library. 2008. <https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/astrology> Rosenberg, Roy A. “The ‘Star of the Messiah’ Reconsidered.”  Biblica Vol. 53, No. 1 (1972), pp 105-109. <https://www.jstor.org/stable/42609680?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents> Jacobs, Lewis. “Jewish Astrology.” My Jewish Learning. 2018. <https://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/jewish-astrology/> “Jewish Calendar: Months of the Jewish Year.” Bukharian Jews USA. 2010. Matrix: “Hebrew Months and the Zodiac.” <http://www.bjewsusa.com/jewish_calendar_03.htm>  Borschel-Dan, Amanda. “As planets align, some see return of Jesus’ Star of Bethlehem.” Times of Israel. 26 October 2015. < https://www.timesofisrael.com/as-planets-align-some-see-return-of-jesus-star-of-bethlehem/>
[10] Deuteronomy 4:19.  “Astronomy.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2052-astronomy>  “star-worship.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13990-star-worship>  Krane, Lloyd. “Adar and the signs of the Zodiac.” Jewish Magazine. 2008.  <http://www.jewishmag.com/121mag/adar-mazel-sign/adar-mazel-sign.htm
[11] Bold text and brackets added by author. “astronomy.”  Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011.
[12] Everitt, Henry.  “The Star of Bethlehem – A Chronology of the Life of Jesus.” Duke University|Department of Physics. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 32, p. 389 (1991).  <http://www.phy.duke.edu/~everitt/StarofBethlehem.pdf>  Strobel, Nick. “The Star of Bethlehem – An Astronomical Perspective.” Astronomy Notes. 2011. <http://www.astronomynotes.com/history/bethlehem-star.html>  “Star of Bethlehem may have been planets Jupiter and Venus.”. IU News Room. Dec. 2003.  <http://newsinfo.iu.edu/news/page/normal/1203.html&t=Star%20of%20Bethlehem%20may%20have%20been%20planets%20Jupiter%20and%20Venus>  Mosley, John. “Common Errors in ‘Star of Bethlehem’ Planetarium Shows.” International Planetarium Society Inc. Reprinted from the Planetarian. 1981. <http://www.ips-planetarium.org/?page=a_mosley1981>  Humphreys, Colin J. “The Star of Bethlehem – a Comet in 5 BC – And the Date and Birth of Christ.” pp 390-391.
[13] “Star of Bethlehem may have been planets Jupiter and Venus.” IU News Room.
[14] “Star of Bethlehem may have been planets Jupiter and Venus.” IU News Room.  Mosley. “Common Errors in ‘Star of Bethlehem’ Planetarium Shows.”  Clevenger, John.  “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.”  Greetham, Phil. The Nativity Pages. 2005. Index. <https://web.archive.org/web/20121011231348/http://www.btinternet.com/~prgreetham/Wisemen/theory.html>  “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.”  Flescher, Eric and Sessions, Larry. “Ten ‘Star’ of Bethlehem Myths: Part II.” Space.com. 2001. <http://web.archive.org/web/20041205014757/http://space.com:80/SpaceReportersNetworkAstronomyDiscoveries/flescher_Xmasstar2_122601.html>
[15] Molnar, Michael R. “Revealing the Star of Bethlehem.” 2015.  <https://web.archive.org/web/20160624012358/http://www.eclipse.net/~molnar/>  Clevenger. “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.” Pratt, John P.  “The Star of Bethlehem’s Forerunner.” JohnPratt.com. Reprinted from Meridian Magazine. 2000.  <http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/meridian/2000/xmas_star.html> Fazekas, Andrew. “Christmas Star Mystery Continues.” National Geographic Daily News. 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20170808084630/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/12/081224-star-bethlehem.html>
[16] Kidger, Mark R.  The Star of Bethlehem: an Astronomer’s View. 1999. pp 254-256. <http://books.google.com/books?id=_ISv1gPQJV4C&lpg=PA25&ots=WsfPW9KFFR&dq=anatole%2C%20greek%2C%20magi&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=anatole,20greek,%20magi&f=false>  MacKenzie, Donald A. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. 1915. Chapter XIII. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/mba/mba19.htm>  “Marduk.” New World Encyclopedia. 2014. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Marduk>  “Marduk.”  The 1911 Classic Encyclopedia. <https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Marduk> Leverington, David. Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy. 2003. Chapter 1.2.  <http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/08408/sample/9780521808408ws.pdf>  “Ancient Assyrian/Babylonian Cuneiform.” Virtualsecrets.com. n.d.  <http://www.virtualsecrets.com/assyrian.html> Allen, Richard Hinckley. Star Names and Their Meanings. pp 337, 341. 1899.  <http://books.google.com/books?id=5xQuAAAAIAAJ&dq=Hinckley%2C%20Star%20Names%20and%20Their%20Meanings&pg=PP2#v=onepage&q=Hinckley,%20Star%20Names%20and%20Their%20Meanings&f=false> Rosenberg.  The “Star of the Messiah” Reconsidered. pp 105-106.  Nolle, Richard. “The Jupiter-Saturn Conjunction.” Astropro.com. 1998. <http://www.astropro.com/features/tables/geo/ju-sa/ju000sa.html>;
[17] Rosenberg.  The “Star of the Messiah” Reconsidered. p 106. 
[18] “The Month of Adar.” Bukharian Jews USA. 2010. <http://www.bjewsusa.com/jewish_calendar_03_12.htm>  Ullman, Yirmiyahu. “The Zodiac.” Ohr Somayach Tanenbaum College.  26 Nov. 2005.  <http://ohr.edu/yhiy/article.php/2394>  “Adar.”  International Center for Tzfat Kabbalah. Tzfat-Kabbalah.org.  n.d. <http://www.tzfat-kabbalah.org/whatis.asp?p=510>  “Pisces.” Dictionary.com. 2018. <https://www.dictionary.com/browse/pisces>  Ford, Dominic. “The Constellation Pisces.” In-The-Sky.org. 2018. <https://in-the-sky.org/data/constellation.php?id=67>  “astronomy.” Jewish Encyclopedia.
[19] “Jewish Calendar:  Months of the Jewish Year.” Bukharian Jews USA.  Dovid, Avrohom. “Almanac of Important Jewish and Biblical Dates.” ThirdTemple.com. “Adar.’” n.d.  <http://www.thirdtemple.com/JewishTime/adar.html>  Heller, Rebbetzin Tzipporah. “The Choice of Adar.” n.d. <http://www.aish.com/h/pur/b/The_Choice_of_Adar.html>  “Adar.”  International Center for Tzfat Kabbalah.  “Purim.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/12448-purim>
[20] “Mesopotamia.” Messenger|MEcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging. 2014. http://archive.is/kBVO>  Cain, Fraser. “How Did Mercury Get Its Name ?”  Universe Today. 2010.  <http://www.universetoday.com/66432/how-did-mercury-get-its-name>  Leverington. Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy. Chapter 1.2. “Ancient Assyrian/Babylonian Cuneiform.”  Virtualsecrets.com.
[21] MacKenzie. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria.  Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings. p 274.  “Venus.” Myth Encyclopedia.  Myths and Legends of the World. 2014.  <http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Tr-Wa/Venus.html>  Leverington.  “Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy. Chapter 1.2.  McCormack.  “Ancient Assyrian/Babylonian Cuneiform.”
[22] MacKenzie,  Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. Chapter XIII.   “Marduk.”  New World Encyclopedia.  “Marduk.”  The 1911 Classic Encyclopedia.   Leverington. Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy. Chapter 1.2.   McCormack. “Ancient Assyrian/Babylonian Cuneiform.”  “Jupiter.”  WyzAnt.com. 2014. <http://www.wyzant.com/resources/lessons/english/etymology/planets/jupiter>
[23] Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings. pp 255-257.   Olcott, William Tyler.  Star Lore of All Ages. 1911.  Reprinted 2017. pp 233-238.  Google Books. <http://books.google.com/books?id=PN7JxXoB1c8C&lpg=PP1&ots=SRZwDRc6dW&dq=Star%20Lore%20of%20All%20Ages&pg=PA233#v=onepage&q=&f=false>   Kaulins. “MUL.APIN – Sumerian Akkadian Astronomy.”  Section #13.  
[24] Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings.  pp 256-257.
[25] Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings. pp 255.  Olcott.  Star Lore of All Ages. p 237.
“Regulus.” Constellation Guide. 2015. <https://www.constellation-guide.com/regulus/> “Sargon.” Behind the Name. 2018. <https://www.behindthename.com/name/sargon>
[26] Martin.  The Star of Bethlehem. Chapter 1.  Pratt, John P.  “Coordinates for the Constellations.” JohnPratt.com. 2001. <http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/sidereal/sidereal.html>  Martin.  The Star of Bethlehem. Chapter 1. Olson, Ross.“Summary of Conjunctions of Planets (“wandering stars”).” 1997.  Twin Cities Creation Science Association. n.d. < http://www.tccsa.tc/articles/star_dates.html>  Olcott.  Star Lore of All Ages. pp 236-237.  
[27] Allen. Star Names and Their Meanings.  p253.
[28] Genesis 49:8-10; Numbers 23:3-9, 21-24.  Strobel. “The Star of Bethlehem – An Astronomical Perspective.”  Carroll. “The Star of Bethlehem: An Astronomical and Historical Perspective.”
[29] Plato. Republic. Book 9, Section 572e. <http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0168:book=9:section=572e&highlight=magi>

The Star of Bethlehem and Astronomy – Was There a Star?

Many have wondered if “His star” observed by the Magi really existed. If astronomy can corroborate Matthew’s Gospel, it would also establish the birthday timeline for Jesus of Nazareth.

Only Matthew’s Nativity account of Jesus’ birth references the star, yet it holds two compelling clues that can be compared with factual astronomy data produced by NASA astronomers, professors, experts and others. According to Matthew, the Magi saw “His star” twice; first in their homeland, then again in Jerusalem – how can a star appear, disappear and reappear again months later?

MT 2:1-2  “…‘Where is He who has been born King of the Jews? For we have seen His star in the East and have come to worship Him.’” (NASB, NKJV)

MT 2:9-10  “When they heard the king, they departed; and behold, the star which they had seen in the East went before them…When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceedingly great joy. (NKJV)

Astronomy as a science began thousands of years ago with the Assyrians and Chaldeans who charted star and planetary positions and developed the ability to calculate their advance movement in the night skies. Magi were expert astronomers who used this same knowledge and skills. Today’s modern science community considers this ancient expertise to be remarkable.[1]

After thousands of years, major advancements in scientific astronomy began in the 1600s with Johannes Kepler’s formulation of the Three Laws of Planetary Motion.[2] In the 1960s, Bryant Tuckerman took Kepler’s breakthrough to the next level using the then highly advanced IBM 704 vacuum-tube computer to calculate the alignment of planetary stars going back millennia, even down to specific to global regions such as the Babylonian/Baghdad time zone.[3]

A simple fact known to the Magi astronomers:  fixed stars hold their positions while planet-stars normally appear and disappear during their rotation around the Sun. Movement cannot be visually seen at any given moment; rather, changes in position can be observed in periodic views of the night sky or from night to night.

Eventually a moving planet will briefly appear on a single night in close visual proximity with another planet or fixed star known as a conjunction. A separation of less than 1° proximity is considered a rare conjunction event.[4] Putting the degree proximity into perspective, the pinkie fingernail on a fully extended arm held towards the night sky covers about 1°; the moon covers about ½ of a degree.[5]  

A single conjunction today is newsworthy such as when UniverseToday.com touted a 3° separation between Venus and Jupiter in 2012.[6] It was a close 3° – chances of witnessing just one conjunction of merely 1° proximity can be a once in a lifetime opportunity.[7] Imagine the excitement if there were seven conjunctions of less than 1° separation in 18 months?

It happened.

Extraordinary planetary conjunctions were exceptionally prolific during the final seven years of the BC era. Among them, from May, 3 BC, through June, 2 BC, were seven sensational, rare conjunctions:

3 BC: [8]

May 19:  Saturn-Mercury conjunction of only .67°/40′ (arc minutes) 

June 12:  Saturn-Venus conjunction of only .12°/7.2′

August 12:  Jupiter-Venus conjunction of only .07°/4.2′

September 14:  1st of Jupiter triple conjunction with Regulus of only .33°/19.8′

2 BC:

February 17:  2nd of Jupiter triple conjunction with Regulus of only .85°/51′ 

May 8:  3rd of Jupiter triple conjunction with Regulus of only .72°/43.2′ 

June 17:  Jupiter-Venus conjunction of a mere .0073°/ 26.2″(arc seconds)

May 19, 3 BC, the Saturn-Mercury conjunction of .67° proximity, only 2% this close are visible from Earth.[9] A person living to the age of 77 has less than a 50-50 chance to possibly witness one.

June 12, 3 BC, Saturn came into .12° conjunction with Venus. While they average a conjunction about once per year, close encounters like this occur in about 8% of all their conjunctions with just 17% being visible from earth – a once in century opportunity.[10] 

August 12, 3 BC, displayed the Jupiter .07° conjunction with Venus.[11] Separation with this extraordinarily tight proximity occurs in a scant 3% of their conjunctions, about once every 120 years.[12] 

Ending 3 BC, September 14th initiated the first of a triple conjunction between the king planet Jupiter and the king star Regulus, each with less than 1° proximity.[13] Jupiter-Regulus triple conjunctions recur in 12 and 71-year cycles.[14]

Most striking is the timing and galactic visual location. The Jupiter-Regulus triple conjunction played out during the 9 months between the two Jupiter-Venus conjunctions of August 12th and June 17th. Last two of the triple conjunctions took place in the heart of Leo the Lion royal constellation.[15]

June 17, 2 BC, as the sunlight faded away in the early evening western sky of Jerusalem, emerged the amazing sight. A reunion of Jupiter and Venus formed an occultation conjunction displaying an elongated, brilliant star more than twice the size of any other in the heavenly panorama.[16] Amplified by being the two brightest planet-stars, “the star” would have been an impressive phenomenon to behold.

“Occultation” is an astronomy term referring to when one celestial object visually appears to move in front of another. Jupiter-Venus occultations are among the rarest – only 3 might have been visible to the naked eye from Jerusalem since 2 BC.[17]

Rarer still, if that seems possible, the Jupiter-Venus occultation occurred inside the Zodiac’s royal constellation of Leo the Lion, the natal sign of Judah.[18] An occultation this close inside Leo only happens once about every 2000 years. Advance knowledge of this upcoming event in the heavens may have been a sign that prompted the Magi to consult King Herod in Jerusalem immediately before the brilliant marvel arose.[19]

Modern software makes it possible to actually see the remarkably rare series of 3-2 BC conjunctions in an animated, time-lapsed recreation. The amazing heavenly pageant wows crowds and astronomers alike at planetarium observatory Christmas shows.[20]

Magi expert astronomers no doubt saw these celestial phenomena.[21] The question is, are the two Jupiter-Venus conjunctions on August 12, 3 BC, and June 17, 2 BC, “His star” witnessed by the Magi in Matthew?

Degrees ( ° ), arc minute ( ′ ), arc second ( ″ )


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REFERENCES:

[1] Eduljee, K. E. “Greek Perceptions of Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism & the Magi.”  Zoroastrian Heritage. 2011. <http://zoroastrianheritage.blogspot.com/2011/04/greek-perceptions-of-zoroaster.html> Larson, Frederick A.  The Star of Bethlehem. “Why are we hearing this now?” 2018.  <http://www.bethlehemstar.net/setting-the-stage/why-are-we-hearing-this-now>
[2] “Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.” Encyclopædia Britannica. 2018. <https://www.britannica.com/science/Keplers-laws-of-planetary-motion>  Paradis, Andrew. “What are Kepler’s laws of motion and what exactly do they mean?” PhysLink.com | Physics & Astronomy Online. n.d.  <http://www.physlink.com/Education/AskExperts/ae613.cfm>  Nave, Carl R. “Kepler’s Laws.” Georgia State University | Department of Physics and Astronomy. 2001. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kepler.html>
[3] Hayton, Daron. “A Modern Astrologer’s Intellectual Breadcrumbs.” Philadelphia Area Center for History of Science. 2011. <https://web.archive.org/web/20161118000249/http://www.pachs.net/blogs/comments/a_modern_astrologers_intellectual_breadcrumbs/> Tuckerman, Bryant.   “Planetary, Lunar and Solar Positions 601 B.C. to A.D. 1 at Five-Day and Ten-Day Intervals.” 1962. <http://www.caeno.org/_Feat/pdf/F027_Reliability_TuckTables.pdf>  Houlden, Michael A. and Stephenson, F. Richard.  “A Supplement to the Tuckerman Tables.”  Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society. Volume 70. “Introduction” “Extent and Precision of Tuckerman’s Tables.”  Google Books.  <http://www.caeno.org/_Feat/pdf/F027_Reliability_TuckSupp.pdf>  Leverington, David. Babylon to Voyager and Beyond – A History of Planetary Astronomy.  Cambridge University Press. 2003.  Chapter 1.2.  <http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/08408/sample/9780521808408ws.pdf>
[4] Basics of Space Flight. Dir. Charles Elachi.  2013 Edition.  “The Solar System.” NASA Science | Solar System Exploration. <https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/basics/bsf1-2.php> “Conjunction.” AbsoluteAstronomy.com. 2018.  http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topicpages/definition?topic=Conjunction>   Mosley, John. “Common Errors in ‘Star of Bethlehem’ Planetarium Shows.” International Planetarium Society Inc. Reprinted from the Planetarian. 1981. <http://www.ips-planetarium.org/?page=a_mosley1981>
[5] “Angular Measurements.”  Cool Cosmos.  “Cosmic Reference Guide.”  Cool Cosmos.  Ventrudo, Brian. “Measuring The Sky.” One-Minute Astronomer. 2009. <http://www.oneminuteastronomer.com/860/measuring-sky>
[6] Cain, Fraser. “Venus-Jupiter Conjunction, March 15th, 2012.” Universe Today. <http://www.universetoday.com/94113/venus-jupiter-conjunction-march-15th-2012 >
[7] Carroll, Susan S. “The Star of Bethlehem:  An Astronomical and Historical Perspective.” Twin Cities Creation Science Association. 1997. <http://www.tccsa.tc/articles/star_susan_carroll.pdf>
[8] “Angle converter.” Unit Juggler. <https://www.unitjuggler.com/angle-conversion.html>  “Angular Measurements.” Cool Cosmos. <http://coolcosmos.ipac.caltech.edu/cosmic_classroom/cosmic_reference/angular.html>  Ventrudo,  Brian. “Measuring The Sky.”  “Venus and Jupiter’s Upcoming Conjunction.” Universe Today. 2004. <http://www.universetoday.com/10006/venus-and-jupiters-upcoming-conjunction/#ixzz2B6cvKJEt>  Carroll. “The Star of Bethlehem:  An Astronomical and Historical Perspective.”  Phillips, Tony. “A Christmas Star for SOHO.”  NASA Science | Science New. 2018. <http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2000/ast16may_1>  “Birth of Jesus.” Navsoft.com. 2012.  <http://navsoft.com/html/birth_of_jesus.html> Martin, Ernest L. The Star of Bethlehem – The Star That Astonished the World.  Chapter 1 & 4. 2003. <http://askelm.com/star/star000.htm#_edn11%3E%20%3Chttp://web.archive.org/web/20170111193244/http://www.askelm.com/star/star001.htm>  Rao,  Joe.  “How to Measure Distances in the Night Sky.” Space.com. 2010. <http://www.space.com/8319-measure-distances-night-sky.html>  Cain.  “Venus and Jupiter’s Upcoming Conjunction.”  Sielaff, David. “An Important August 2 B.C.E. Conjunction.” A.S.K. (Associates For Scriptural Knowledge). 2005. <http://www.askelm.com/news/n051211.htm>  Clevenger, John.  “Astronomy, Astrology, and the Star of Bethlehem.”  Lake County (Illinois) Astronomical   Society. 2012. <http://www.lcas-astronomy.org/articles/display.php?filename=the_christmas_star&category=miscellaneous>  Haley, A. S. “The Star of Bethlehem and the Nativity.” Anglican Curmudgeon. 2009. <http://accurmudgeon.blogspot.com/2009/10/star-of-bethlehem-and-nativity.html>  Newman, Robert C. “The Star of Bethlehem: A Natural-Supernatural Hybrid?”  Interdisciplinary Bible Research Institute.  IBRI Paper (2001).  <http://web.archive.org/web/20171016111146/http://www.newmanlib.ibri.org/Papers/StarofBethlehem/75starbethlehem.htm> Beatty, Kelly. “Venus and Jupiter: Together at Last.” Sky & Telescope. 2015.  <http://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/observing-news/venus-and-jupiter-a-dazzling-duo-062520154>  Ratnikas,  Algis. “Timeline 499BCE – 1BCE.”  Timeslines of History.  n.d. <http://timelines.ws/0D499_1BC.HTML>  Pratt, John P.  “The Star of Bethlehem’s Forerunner.” JohnPratt.com. Reprinted from Meridian Magazine. 2000.  <http://www.johnpratt.com/items/docs/lds/meridian/2000/xmas_star.html>  Rjvanderbei. “Searching for the Star of Bethlehem (updated).”   National Geographic  News Watch . 26 Dec. 2011 <http://newswatch.nationalgeographic.com/2011/12/26/searching-for-the-star-of-bethlehem>  Dickinson, David. “Is This Month’s Jupiter-Venus Pair Really a Star of Bethlehem Stand In?” Universe Today. October 14, 2015. <https://www.universetoday.com/122738/is-this-months-jupiter-venus-pair-really-a-star-of-bethlehem-stand-in/>
[9] Curtis, Jan. “Predictable Astronomical Events.” Alaska Climate Research Center. n.d. Chapter 2. <http://climate.gi.alaska.edu/Curtis/astro.html>  Curtis, Jan. “Mercury-Saturn Conjunctions (2000-2078 AD).” Alaska Climate Research Center. n.d. <http://climate.gi.alaska.edu/Curtis/graf/MeSc100.gif> “Planetary Conjunctions.”  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Earth System Research Laboratory. <http://web.archive.org/web/20160304124051/http://laps.noaa.gov/albers/ast/conjun/conjun.html>
[10] “Planetary Conjunctions.”  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).  Curtis. “Mercury-Saturn Conjunctions (2000-2078 AD).”  Curtis, Jan. “Venus-Saturn Conjunctions Minimum Separation 500-Events (2000-2482).” Alaska Climate Research Center. n.d. <http://climate.gi.alaska.edu/Curtis/graf/VSc500.gif>
[11] Rao, Joe.  “Saturday’s Venus-Jupiter Encounter May Explain Bible’s Star of Bethlehem.” Space.com. 2016. <http://www.space.com/33866-venus-jupiter-conjunction-star-of-bethlehem.html>  Martin. The Star of Bethlehem. Chapter 4. Olson, Ross. “Summary of Conjunctions of Planets (“wandering stars”).” 1997. Twin Cities Creation Science Association.  n.d.  <http://www.tccsa.tc/articles/star_dates.html>
[12] Fazekas, Andrew.  “Jupiter Conjunction Peaks Thursday—Easy-to-See Sky Show.” National Geographic Daily News. 2012. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/03/120313-conjunction-venus-jupiter-sky-space-science>  “Venus And Jupiter Will Pass 42 Arc seconds Apart On May 17.” Press Release – Marshall Space Flight Center.  SpaceRef.com. 2000. <http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=1819>  Curtis, Jan.  “Venus-Jupiter Conjunctions Minimum Separation 500-Events (2000-2488 A.D.)” Alaska Climate Research Center. n.d. <http://climate.gi.alaska.edu/Curtis/graf/VJc500.gif>  Curtis, Jan. “Venus-Jupiter Conjunctions 100-Events.” Alaska Climate Research Center. n.d. <http://climate.gi.alaska.edu/Curtis/graf/VJc100.gif>  Rao, Joe. “Earthlings Dazzled by Venus-Jupiter Close Encounter.” Discovery News. 2012. <http://news.discovery.com/space/venus-jupiter-conjunction-120312.html>  Cain. “Venus and Jupiter’s Upcoming Conjunction.”
[13] Kidger, Mark R. “Possible Explanations of the Star of Bethlehem.” Mark Kidger`s Comet and Asteroid Observing Home Page  n.d.<http://www.observadores-cometas.com/Star_of_Bethlehem/English/Possible.htm>  Kidger, Mark R. The Star of Bethlehem: an Astronomer’s View. 1999. <http://books.google.com/books?id=_ISv1gPQJV4C&lpg=PA25&ots=WsfPW9KFFR&dq=anatole%2C%20greek%2C%20magi&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q=anatole,20greek,%20magi&f=false>  “2-planet (1974-2068)” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). n.d. <http://web.archive.org/web/20160412052726/http://laps.noaa.gov/albers/conjun/for008.future>
[14] Haley. “The Star of Bethlehem and the Nativity.”  Konnen, G.P. and Meeus, J. “Triple Conjunctions, Twins and Triplets,” Journal of the British Astronomical Association. vol.93, no.1, p.20-24. Bibliographic Code 1982JBAA…93…20K. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. n.d. <http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu//full/1982JBAA…93…20K/0000023.000.html>
[15] “Birth of Jesus.” Navsoft.com.  Carroll. “The Star of Bethlehem: An Astronomical and Historical Perspective.”  Newman. “The Star of Bethlehem: A Natural-Supernatural Hybrid?”  Phillips. “A Christmas Star for SOHO.”  Haley.  “The Star of Bethlehem and the Nativity.”
[16] “Planetary Conjunctions.”  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA.  Bogan, Larry. “Mutual Planetary Occultations Past and Future.” Larry Bogan’s Website. Cambridge Station, Nova Scotia. 1999. <http://www.bogan.ca/astro/occultations/occltlst.htm>  “Haley. “The Star of Bethlehem and the Nativity.”  Carroll. “The Star of Bethlehem:  An Astronomical and Historical Perspective.” p 10. “Venus And Jupiter Will Pass 42 Arc seconds Apart On May 17.” SpaceRef.com.  Martin. The Star of Bethlehem. Chapter 1. Phillips. “A Christmas Star for SOHO.”  Rjvanderbei. “Searching for the Star of Bethlehem (updated).”
[17] “occultation.” AbsoluteAstronomy.com. <http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topicpages/definition?topic=Occultation>  “occultation.” NASA Aerospace Science & Technology Dictionary. <https://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/hqlibrary/aerospacedictionary/508/o.html> Ricci, Pierpaolo.  “Occultations Between Planets from the Year 0 To 4000.”  The Sky and Its Phenomena.  n.d. <http://www.pierpaoloricci.it/dati/occpia_eng.htm>  Bogan, Larry. “Mutual Planetary Occultations Past and Future.”
[18] Genesis 49:8-10; Numbers 23:3-9, 21-24.  “Birth of Jesus.” Navsoft.com.  Carroll. “The Star of Bethlehem: An Astronomical and Historical Perspective.”  Newman. “The Star of Bethlehem: A Natural-Supernatural Hybrid?”  Phillips. “A Christmas Star for SOHO.”  Haley.  “The Star of Bethlehem and the Nativity.”
[19] “Birth of Jesus.” Navsoft.com.  “Historical Events.” Navsoft.com. <http://navsoft.com/html/historical.html> Newman. “The Star of Bethlehem: A Natural-Supernatural Hybrid?”  Phillips. “A Christmas Star for SOHO.”  Mosley, John.  “Common Errors in ‘Star of Bethlehem’ Planetarium Shows.”  Beatty, Kelly. “Venus and Jupiter:  Together at Last.” Sky & Telescope.
[20] Fazekas, Andrew. “Christmas Star Mystery Continues.” National Geographic Daily News. 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20170808084630/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/12/081224-star-bethlehem.html>  Martin. The Star of Bethlehem. Chapter 1.  Haley, A. S. “The Star of Bethlehem and the Nativity.”  Larson. The Star of Bethlehem.
[21] Carroll. “The Star of Bethlehem: An Astronomical and Historical Perspective.”