Mystery of “The Censor” in the Dark Ages
Bible history aficionados often want to know the identity of “the Censor” of the Dark Ages. Because the censorship is focused squarely on information about Jesus of Nazareth, more questions arise about the why and the how.
Much like the explosion of information on the Internet today, invention of the Gutenberg press around 1500 AD opened up the Dark Ages with a burst of information to the masses. Aside from playing a key role in triggering the Renaissance, the Gutenberg press was a game changer in another way.
Imagine – now, as a result of the Gutenberg press, religious information was available to anyone who could read. Losing control of religious information posed a threat to elite institutions that had previously held exclusive control over religious messaging. In an effort to regain control, they resorted to censorship tactics.
“The Censor” mystery is deepened because there was not just one person behind it. Instead, the term is used by religious scholars referring to the many perpetrators, known and mostly unknown, who performed the censorship.
Blame is largely attributed to the Roman Inquisition for censorship of references deemed to be contradictory to the official teaching of Christianity. Some evidence points to Jewish censorship, too, that is exposed in newer translations of the Babylonian Talmud and other Jewish writings.
Censorship also extended to other written materials. Home-to-home searches imposed indiscriminate burning of scrolls and books, pages being torn out, and blacking out text. Encyclopaedia Judaica explains censorship of the Talmud began in the late 1500s such as with Sanhedrin 43a, 106a and 107b.
Irrespective of those who pulled the strings of “the Censor,” the once-expunged content is viewed today as being insightful to a deeper understanding of both Jewish and Christian teachings. At the forefront of the censored restoration is the publishing of the Soncino Babylonian Talmud.
Soncino Editor Rabbi Dr. I. Epstein explained an attempt was made to reproduce a “clear and lucid” literal English translation of the Talmud. Missing content was restored either directly to the body of text or, albeit more obscurely, within the footnotes. Sometimes the Rabbi Editor added clarifying context in brackets.
One previously censored folio in the Soncino translation is Sanhedrin 43a containing direct references to Yeshu, a Hebrew name for Jesus. Some of the original text was restored only in the footnotes:
“…On the eve of the Passover Yeshu  was hanged …’”
“But since nothing was brought forward in his favor he was hanged on the eve of Passover!”
“Yeshu” footnote #34 references the original Munich manuscript, the oldest complete Talmud copy in existence, saying it included the following words “the Nasarean” which referred to the home town of Yeshu. The original Munich Talmud manuscript thus said: “On the eve of the Passover Yeshu, the Nasarean, was hanged.” (The Munich manuscript made other references to “Jesus the Nazarene” which was changed to “R. Joshua b. Perahiah” in its subsequent versions.)
Footnote #35 references the phrase “eve of the Passover” and says a less than complete Florentine Talmud manuscript, 200 years older than the original Munich Manuscript, includes the words “and the eve of Sabbath.” Fully restored, the Talmud would thus read that Yeshu “was hanged on the eve of Passover and the eve of the Sabbath!” It thus provides validation of the Gospel accounts saying Jesus was hanged or crucified on the Friday leading into Passover .
Sanhedrin 43a footnote #36 clarifies the phrase “he was connected with the government” by adding the bracketed words “[or royalty, i.e., influential].” Since Hebrew royalty only comes through the lineage of King David, an exception was made in the handling of Jesus because of his influential royal lineage.
Mishneh Torah formulates the 13 principals of the Jewish faith written by the revered Medieval Rabbi Maimonides. Heavy censorship focused on the last two chapters called “Hilchos Melachim – the Laws Concerning Kings.” An example of a formerly censored excerpt from the Sichos in English translation is found restored only in a footnote:
Text body: “If a king will arise from the House of David, who, like David his ancestor, delves deeply into the study of the Torah and engages in the mitzvos as prescribed by the Written Law and the Oral Law; if he will compel all of Israel to walk in [the way of the Torah] and repair the breaches [in its observance]; and if he will fight the wars of G-d; – we may, with assurance, consider him Mashiach.”
Footnoted restoration: (continuing…) “If he did not succeed to this degree or he was killed, he surely is not [the redeemer] promised by the Torah. [Rather,] he should be considered as all the other proper and legitimate kings of the Davidic dynasty who died. G-d only caused him to arise in order to test the multitude. As it is written [Daniel 11:35], “Some of the wise men will stumble, to purge, to refine, and to clarify, until the appointed time, for it is yet to come.”
“Jesus of Nazareth who aspired to be the Moshiach and was executed by the court was also spoken of in Daniel’s prophecies [Daniel 11:14], “The renegades among your people shall exalt themselves in an attempt to fulfill the vision, but they shall stumble.”
Was “the Censor” of Christian origin because Maimonides said Jesus was a renegade, an aspiring messiah (Moshiach) who stumbled? Or was “the Censor” of Jewish origin possibly because of references to Jesus of Nazareth, his royal Davidic dynasty lineage, and his execution by the court?
“The Censor,” in the end, was unsuccessful in hiding certain common truths – Judaism’s agreement with the Gospels that Jesus of Nazareth was a legitimate royal descendant of King David who was condemned by the court and executed on the Friday of leading into Passover.
Updated August 24, 2022.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
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