Passover and the Gospels – Are They In Sync?

Moses defied Pharaoh some 3500 years ago in Egypt ending with the 10th plague, death of the firstborn.[1] Hebrews were spared when the angel of death passed over their homes bearing the blood of the sacrificial lambs over their doorposts.

God declared His act of salvation was to be observed annually by the Hebrews to “sacrifice the Passover to the LORD your God “in the place where the LORD chooses to establish His name.”[2] Strict requirements appear in books of the Law of Moses – Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.[3]

Gospels detail the final days of Jesus of Nazareth surrounding his  trial, execution and resurrection where the setting is the annual Passover observance in Jerusalem. Interwoven throughout are 21 references to the Passover by name and 6 references to either “the feast” or “the festival.” Are the Gospel accounts consistent with Jewish legal requirements? Not everyone agrees.[4]

Passover began at twilight of Nissan 14, the day when the Pascal Lamb had been sacrificed, marking the beginning of Nissan 15 when the Feast of Unleavened Bread was to be eaten.[5] A key distinction, Jewish days begin at twilight while Western societies begin the new day at midnight.[6]

Many elements with significance and meanings are associated with the Feast of Unleavened Bread.[7] Like its name says, bread was made without leaven, known as “the bread of affliction.”[8] Over time, leaven came to be considered synonymous with “corruption.” In fact, a Passover preparation requirement was to ensure no leaven could to be found anywhere in a Jewish household going into Passover week.

Most Western societies would consider this evening meal to be the dinner event for the day of Nissan 14 while the first meal of the next day would be breakfast. The Law of Moses, however, considered the evening Feast of Unleavened Bread to be the very first meal of Nissan 15.

Roasted lamb from the Pascal sacrifice offered earlier that day of Nissan 14 became the main course.[9] It was literally a feast intended to feed 10 to 20 people; a festive and joyous occasion to celebrate God’s deliverance from bondage – freedom.[10] Any leftovers by midnight were to be promptly burned.

Sunrise brought the initial daylight hours of the first day of Passover, Nissan 15, along with the daily necessities still to come. People were busy with required and traditional activities including meals and sacrifices.

Jewish Talmudic law defined the sacrifices for each day including the meal plan for the first day of Passover. An entire tractate in the Babylonia Talmud entitled Chagigah is devoted to addressing the various expectations and requirements.[11] Two Chagigah sacrifices were actually associated with the Passover.[12]

First was the optional Chagigah sacrifice that could be offered on Nissan 14 as an optional festal offering intended to supplement the Paschal sacrifice ensuring there would be enough meat to feed a large Passover company.[13] It was “in all respects equal to the paschal sacrifice itself” expected to provide for “the duty of enjoying the festival.”[14]

If this optional festal sacrifice was to be offered, it was to occur before the Pascal sacrifice so that there was no interruption between it and the Feast of Unleavened Bread.[15] Like the Paschal lamb, it had to be consumed by midnight with any leftovers to be burned.

By tradition, the second Chagigah sacrifice was traditionally offered on Nissan 15, the first day of Passover, coming to be called exactly that, the Chagigah. It was to be offered under different circumstances than the first with a different purpose and rules. As an obligatory, private “peace offering,” it was to be offered by an individual at the Temple with the assistance of a Priest who became a beneficiary to it.[16]

A portion of the sacrifice was to be given God, a portion to the Priest as a tithe for his own meal, and the remaining portion of meat was to be taken home by the offeror for his own Chagigah meal.[17] For this reason, a priest had a vested personal interest to assist in the sacrifice.

Meat from this obligatory Chagigah sacrifice was to be prepared during the afternoon and served before evening as the main course of the first meal of Passover day.[18] It was to be consumed over the course of two days and one night – the first and second days of Passover, Nissan 15 and 16, and the night in between.

Things get interesting as it relates to the Gospels’ accounts describing the final hours in the life of Jesus of Nazareth, especially John 18:28.[19] After the “Last Supper,” the Feast of Unleavened Bread, Jesus was arrested and put on trial that night. During the trial, Jesus was taken by the Jewish leadership to Pilate at the Praetorium where the priests refused to enter, as referenced in John 18:28, “so that they would not be defiled, but might eat the Passover.”[20]

Entering the Praetorium was one of those things that could place a priest in a state of defilement.[21] Although John does not explain the reason for the defilement, one possibility was due to the Jewish legal concept known as “abortus” – touching a dead body or home that once contained a dead body (the presumption of a Gentile’s home).[22]

After sunset, a ritualistic purification bath by the priest absolved the defilement; however, it was too late. Meat from the Chagigah sacrifice offered on the first day of Passover was to be prepared and cooked that same day before evening.[23]

A priest who was “defiled” could not offer any sacrifice that day meaning he would not receive his lawful portion of the Chagigah sacrificial meat for his own meal.[24] For a priest whose personal financial support came directly from his duties performed at the Temple, it was a major incentive not to be in a state of defilement on the first day of Passover.

Evening began the second day of Passover, Nissan 16, with the traditional ritual of a barley reaping in preparation for the Wave Sheaf also known as the Omar offering. It was required to be offered on the second day of Passover to celebrate the Feast of First Fruits of the harvest.

Are the Gospel references to the Passover during the final days in the life of Jesus of Nazareth in agreement with Jewish Law defined in the Old Testament, the Tenakh, and the Talmud?

 

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REFERENCES:

[1] Exodus 8-12. Roth, Don. “What year was the first Passover?” Biblical Calendar Proof. 2019. <http://www.biblicalcalendarproof.com/Timeline/PassoverDate>
[2] Deuteronomy 16. NASB.
[3] Exodus 12; Leviticus 23; Numbers 9; Deuteronomy 16. <http://www.ntslibrary.com/PDF%20Books/The%20Temple%20by%20Alfred%20Edersheim.pdf>
[4] Wells, Steve.&nbsp; <u>The Skeptic’s Annotated Bible</u>. 2017. “423. When was Jesus crucified? <http://skepticsannotatedbible.com/contra/passover_meal.html>  “101 Bible Contradictions.” Islamic Awareness. n.d. Contradiction #69. <https://www.islamawareness.net/Christianity/bible_contra_101.html> [5] Exodus 12; Leviticus 23; Numbers 9; Deuteronomy 16. Edersheim, Alfred. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. 1826-1889. “The Roasting of the Lamb.” pp 66 – 67, 71-72. <http://www.ntslibrary.com/PDF%20Books/The%20Temple%20by%20Alfred%20Edersheim.pdf>
[6] Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. p 71.
[7] “Passover.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/11933-passover> Rich, Tracey R. “Pesach: Passover.” Judaism101. 2011. <http://www.jewfaq.org/holidaya.htm>  Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. “Present Ritual not the Same as the New Testament Times.” pp 74-75.
[8] Exodus 12; Deuteronomy 16.  “Leaven.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/9694-leaven>  Rich. “Pesach: Passover.”
[9] Deuteronomy 16. Edersheim, Alfred. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. “The Roasting of the Lamb.” p 75.
[10] Gill. John Gill’s Exposition of the Whole Bible. John; chapters 18-19 commentary.  <https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-18.html> Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. pp 70-71, 76, 79, 81-82.  Josephus, Flavius. Wars of the Jews. Trans. and commentary William Whitson.  The Complete Works of Josephus.1850. Book VI, Chapter IX.3.  <https://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>  Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. 1883. p 1324. <http://www.ntslibrary.com/PDF%20Books/The%20Life%20and%20Times%20of%20Jesus%20the%20Messiah.pdf
[11] Talmud Bavli. Sefaria. Trans. William Davidson. n.d.  <https://www.sefaria.org/texts/Talmud>
[12] Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. “The Three Things.” pp 70-71.
[13] Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. p 1324.
[14 The Babylonian Talmud. Rodkinson. Tract Pesachim, Book 3, Chapter VI. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/t03/psc09.htm> Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. pp 1324.  Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. pp 70-71.  Gill. John Gill’s Exposition of the Whole Bible. John chapters 18 & 19 commentary.
[15] The Babylonian Talmud. Rodkinson. Tract Pesachim, Book 3, Chapter V.  Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. p 79.
[16] Leviticus 3. Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. p 1383-85. Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. p 70.  Streane, A. W, ed.  A Translation of the Treatise Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud. 1891. Chagigah 7b, Gemara. Pages 35 – 36. <http://www.archive.org/stream/translationoftre00streuoft/translationoftre00streuoft_djvu.txt>
[17] Leviticus 7.  Streane. A Translation of the Treatise Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud. Glossary:  “Chagigah.”  pp 147-148.  Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. pp 41, 82.
[18] Edersheim. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. p 1382.  Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. p 70. The Babylonian Talmud.  Rodkinson.  Book 3. Tract Pesachim Chapters VI, VIII, IX.
[19] Matthew 26-27; Mark 14-15; Luke 22-23; John 18-19.  Edersheim, Alfred. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. p 1384.
[20] NASB.
[21] Numbers 9. Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. p. 83.  Soncino Babylonian Talmud. “Introduction to Seder Tohoroth.” #2. <https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/talmud/tohoroth.html>  “Priest.” Jewish Encyclopedia.
[22] Leviticus 22.   Edersheim.  The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. pp 1383-1385.
[23] Edersheim. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. p 1382.  Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. p 70. The Babylonian Talmud.  Rodkinson.  Book 3. Tract Pesachim. Chapters VI, VIII, IX.
[24] Leviticus 22; Numbers 9, 19. Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. “The First Day of the Feast” pp 82-83, 85, 130-131, “Appendix.” pp 130-131.  “Priest.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/12358-priest>  Streane. A Translation of the Treatise Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud. Glossary:  “Chagigah.”  p 148. 

Preparation Day – Is There a Bible Contradiction?

A confusing Jewish tradition is the Preparation Day – is there a Bible contradiction between John and the other Gospels? Some critics point to John’s Preparation Day references to claim a Gospel contraction thereby casting doubt on their integrity and their accounts about Jesus of Nazareth.[1] In the setting of when Pilate was judging Jesus, John wrote:

JN 19:14 “Now it was the Preparation Day of the Passover, and about the sixth hour. And he said to the Jews, “Behold your King!”” (NKJV)

John seems to suggest that Jesus was judged by Pilate on the Thursday before Passover which would indeed create a Gospel conflict. In fact, it would be inconsistent with his own second reference a few verses later:

JN 19:31 “Therefore, because it was the Preparation Day, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), the Jews asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.” (NKJV)

Occam’s Razor theory suggests that the simplest explanation is usually the right one. John seems to clearly reveal his definition for the “Preparation Day” in this verse as being the day leading into the Sabbath – a Friday – not the Thursday before the Passover.

For some, this may not completely address the apparent conflict posed by verse 14 obliging the longer explanation. A big clue is found in John’s parenthetical comment “for that Sabbath was a high day” or, depending on the translation, a “high Sabbath” or a “special Sabbath.”[2]

All Festival holy days, according the Law of Moses, were to be regarded as a Sabbath, “an appointed time.”[3] Bookend holy day were designated for Passover week, the first and last days of Passover.[4] When Nissan 15, the first holy day of the Passover, fell on a Friday it created back-to-back Sabbaths.

God’s commandment defined the weekly Sabbath as the holy day prohibiting “all manner of work.[5] The Jewish Talmud legal opinion expounded on this Law defining what was or was not considered work – rules notoriously enforced by the Pharisees in the Gospels.

Work prohibitions ran the gambit from cooking, drawing water, walking, carrying, making fires, feeding livestock, harvesting, etc. To avoid such violations, preparatory work for these tasks had to be completed before sunset Friday evening – the day of preparation for the Sabbath.[6]

On the typical Nissan 15 first holy day of Passover, the people were customarily busy with other required and traditional activities. In the morning was the Chagigah sacrifice where the meat from it was to be prepared and eaten toward the end of the day. That evening was the traditional ritual of a barley reaping in preparation for the Wave Sheaf or the Omer offering the second day of Passover to celebrate the Feast of First Fruits of the harvest.[7]

When Nissan 15 Passover fell on a Friday, it presented a legal conundrum. According to the Talmud interpretation of the Law, people were meant to “enjoy” the Passover Festival. The enjoyment factor was confounded by the strict Passover meal limitations further complicated by the legal work restrictions imposed by the two consecutive day Sabbaths.

A common sense solution would be to use Thursday, Nissan 14, as the preparation day for the back-to-back Sabbaths. After all, there was also a preparation day in advance of any designated holy day.  For this high Sabbath Passover, it was not that simple.

Double food preparations on Nissan 14 to cover two days was not an option because of the Passover commandment that said all food from the Feast of Unleavened Bread had to be consumed by midnight or else burned – no leftovers.[8] Requiring the people to go without cooked meals for two days (all day Friday and Saturday) due to work restrictions, not to mention work responsibilities piling up especially for farming activities, would be a negative experience rather than a positive one.

Rabbis were interpreters of the Law, Jewish lawyers, and they found some legal wiggle room. Festival Sabbath language in the Law of Leviticus and Numbers used the Hebrew word abodah meaning “labor” interpreted by Rabbi Sages to be a more lenient work restriction than the weekly Sabbath “all manner of work. [9] English translations reflect the difference saying “servile work,” “laborious work,” “regular work,” “occupations” and “customary work.”[10]

In the spirit of the Passover being a celebratory festival and with this legal flexibility, work exceptions were allowed by the Rabbis for a Friday, Nissan 15, Passover holy day to prepare for the weekly Sabbath. JewishEncyclopedia.com explains the Passover holy day work restriction leniency:[11]

“The general purpose underlying these laws is to enhance the joy of the festival, and therefore the Rabbis permitted all work necessary to that end, while guarding against turning it into a working-day.”

Wading through all the Jewish legalities, it boils down to John having made references in verses 14 and 31 to two different times of the same “preparation day” based on different scenarios. Verse 14 is in the context of the Friday morning of Passover when the full day of High Sabbath preparation activities were still ahead – “the Preparation Day of the Passover.”

Verse 31 is in the narrower context of the very same Friday where the imminent sunset would begin the weekly Sabbath and its much stricter rules – “because it was the Preparation Day, that the bodies should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath.” This is why Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus were in a hurry to bury the body of Jesus before sunset, the beginning of a new Jewish day.

Does John’s reference to the preparation day create a Bible contradiction with the other Gospels?

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REFERENCES:

NKJV = New King James Version translation
Gospel references:  Matthew 28, Mark 16; Luke 24, John 20

[1] Wells, Steve.  The Skeptic’s Annotated Bible. 2017. “423. When was Jesus crucified?”  http://skepticsannotatedbible.com/contra/passover_meal.html rel=”nofollow”</a>  “101 Bible Contradictions.”  Islamic Awareness. n.d. Contradiction #69. <http://www.islamawareness.net/Christianity/bible_contra_101.html rel=”nofollow”</a>
[2] NIV, NASB, NLT, NKJV.  Edersheim, Alfred.  The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. 1883. Book V, Chapter 15. <http://philologos.org/__eb-lat/default.htm>
[3] Exodus 31:12-17; Leviticus 23:1-44.  The Babylonian Talmud. Trans. Michael L. Rodkinson.  1918. Book 1, Sabbath, Chapter I; Book 2, Tract Erubin; Book 3, Tract Pesachim, Book 3, Chapter IV. <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/talmud.htm>   Soncino Babylonian Talmud.  “Shabbath.” <https://israelect.com/Come-and-Hear/shabbath/index.html>  “Shabbat” and “Festivals.”  Jewish Encyclopedia.  2011. < http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com>
[4] Exodus 12; Numbers 28.
[5] Exodus 23; 31; Leviticus 23.
[6] Exodus 16.
[7] Edersheim. The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. Book V, Chapter 14.  “’Omer (= “sheaf”).”  JewishEncyclopedia.com.
[8] Deuteronomy 16.  Edersheim, Alfred. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. 1826 -1889.  The NTSLibrary. 2016. <http://www.ntslibrary.com/PDF%20Books/The%20Temple%20by%20Alfred%20Edersheim.pdf>
[9] Leviticus 23; Numbers 28.
[10] KJV, NET, NIV, NASB, NLT, NRSV, NKJV. Net.Bible.org. Hebrew text, footnote #20 for Numbers 28:18.  Strong.  “`abodah <5656>.”  The New Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.
[11] The Babylonian Talmud.  Rodkinson.  Book 3, Tracts Pesachim, Chapter IV and Book 4, Tract Betzah (Yom Tob).  “Holy Days” and “Festivals.”  Jewish Encyclopedia.  2011.

Easter Good Friday – or is it Good Thursday?

Tradition says that Jesus was crucified on Good Friday. Not everyone agrees – some say that Jesus was on a Thursday, the day before the Passover.[i] Others argue there is a conflict in the Gospels serving to invalidate its credibility and its claim that Jesus is the Son of God.[ii] Was it Good Friday or Good Thursday? Easter and Passover Traditions are called into question by a verse in the Gospel of John that says:

JN 18:28 Then they took Jesus from Caiaphas to Pilate’s headquarters. It was early in the morning. They themselves did not enter the headquarters, so as to avoid ritual defilement and to be able to eat the Passover.(NRSV)

John seems to attribute the timing of the crucifixion before the first day of Passover by saying the priests were worried about becoming defiled thus disqualifying them from eating the Passover meal.[iii]It is easy to conclude “to eat the Passover” refers to the Feast of Unleavened Bread being observed at its appointed time. If true, it would mean John was saying Jesus was crucified on Thursday, Nissan 14, before the Passover Feast of Unleavened Bread, a contradiction with the other Gospels saying he was crucified on the first day of Passover, a Friday that particular year.

All may not be what it appears to be. What if there was another separate Passover meal that concerned the priests on Friday, the first day of Passover, after the Feast of Leavened Bread the previous evening ? There was…and it involved a legally required Passover sacrifice.[iv]

Jewish Talmud differentiates between the first two Passover meals. First was the Feast of Unleavened Bread at the beginning of Nissan 15 to be taken from the paschal sacrifice offering earlier that day on Nissan 14 and consumed entirely that evening before midnight. The second Passover meal was to be taken from the festal sacrificial offering on the first day of Passover, Nissan 15, to be consumed over the course of two days and one night.[v]

Chagigah, as the first day of Passover meal later came to be called, was a sacrifice offered by an individual at the Temple earlier in the day with the assistance of a priest who became a beneficiary to it.[vi] Jewish Law stipulated that a portion of the sacrifice was to be given to the priest for his own Chagigah Passover meal while the remaining meat was to be taken home by the offeror for his personal Chagigah meal.[vii] 

Defilement worries? Priests were held to a higher Rabbinical standard with special rules that did not apply to the general populace. Entering Pilate’s headquarters, the Praetorium, was one of those things that would place the priests in a state of ritual defilement.[viii]Disqualification from performing their Chagigah sacrificial duty on the first day of Passover meant the priests would not have received their lawful portion of the sacrificial meat – no meat for their Chagigah Passover meal that evening.[ix]

Jewish legalities also rule out the Feast of Unleavened Bread as the one referenced in John 18:28. Jewish Law provided two remedies for a ritually defiled priest to partake of the evening Feast or any other. Rabbinic ritual defilement could be absolved after sunset by means of a ritualistic purification bath. Since the Feast began after sunset, the purified priest could then partake of it. Additionally, the Law designated a make-up day called the “second Passover” for those who could not participate in the first Feast of Unleavened Bread.

There are much bigger, logical reasons why the defilement concern of John 18:28 does not refer to the crucifixion of Jesus on Thursday, Nissan 14, preceding the Feast of Unleavened Bread that evening. Earlier in the afternoon of Nissan 14, shortly after midday, upwards of a quarter million paschal sacrifices had to be performed! It was an all-hands on deck scenarios where all the Priests served a vitally important role at the Temple requiring massive preparations with a packed and rigid schedule involving the sacred sacrificial rituals for the most popular annual Festival in all the land that drew crowds of about 3 million.[x] 

With this in mind, how illogical is the scenario where high level priests pursued their vendetta against Jesus beginning after the evening dinner of Wednesday, Nissan 13, throughout the night into Nissan 14 with an inquisition and a trial; Roman hearings the next morning; and ending with the crucifixion of Jesus at 3pm on Nissan 14 … at the same time tens of thousands of pascal lamb sacrifices were being performed at the Temple? It would be like NFL Super Bowl event managers taking the day off on Super Bowl Sunday to attend to personal business.

Consider, too, the Roman factor – Passover was the one Jewish festival where the troublesome crowd of millions of pilgrims worried the Romans more than any other.[xI] How likely is it that Roman authorities would risk triggering a riot by crucifying Jews on the same day as their sacred paschal sacrifices at the Temple? On the next day, the first day of Passover, Nissan 15; however, by Jewish Law the crowds were all dispersed to their local housing accommodations celebrating the Passover Festival with very minimal activity.

Did John’s reference to the priest’s Passover meal defilement concern actually pose a credibility issue with the other Gospels saying Jesus was crucified on the first day of Passover?

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

REFERENCES:

NRSV = New Revised Standard Version translation

[i]  Doig, Kenneth F. New Testament Chronology.  Chapter 18.  <http://nowoezone.com/NTC18.htm>  Edersheim, Alfred.  The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah. 1883. Book V.  <http://philologos.org/__eb-lat/default.htm>
[ii] Wells, Steve.  The Skeptic’s Annotated Bible. 2017. “423. When was Jesus crucified?” http://skepticsannotatedbible.com/contra/passover_meal.html> “101 Bible Contradictions.”  Islamic Awareness. n.d. Contradiction #69. https://www.islamawareness.net/Christianity/bible_contra_101.html>
[iii] Edersheim, Alfred. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. 1826-1889. Chapter 11. <http://philologos.org/__eb-ttms/temple11.htm>
[iv] Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. Chapter 11.  “Ablution.”  Jewish Encyclopedia.  2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com>
[v] The Babylonian Talmud. Trans. Michael L. Rodkinson.  1918.  Book 3, Tract Pesachim.  <http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/talmud.htm>   Streane, A. W, ed. A Translation of the Treatise Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud.  1891. Chagigah 7b.  <http://www.archive.org/stream/translationoftre00streuoft/translationoftre00streuoft_djvu.txt>
[vi] Leviticus 3.
[vii] Leviticus 7:29-32.  Edersheim. The Temple – Its Ministry and Services. Chapters 5 & 11.  Streane.  A Translation of the Treatise Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud.  Glossary:  “Chagigah.”
[viii] Leviticus 22.
[ix] Leviticus 22;  Numbers 9. Josephus, Flavius.  Antiquities of the Jews. Book III, Chapter X. Google Books.  n.d <http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[x] Josephus, Flavius.  Wars of the Jews. Book VI.. < http://books.google.com/books?id=e0dAAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false>
[xi] Antiquities. Book XI, Chapter IV; Book XX, Chapter V. Josephus. Wars. Book V, Chapter V.