Micah’s Unique Messiah Requirement
Micah the prophet is known for a single Messiah prophecy, one that is unique. Specific prophecies about the Messiah are rarely as clear as Micah’s.
Rarer still perhaps is anything that is common ground to those of great religious opposition. Strange bedfellows agree both on who the prophecy is about and the exact place where it is to be fulfilled. Image, a preeminent Jewish Rabbi sage; a powerful and ruthless King; Jewish scriptural experts from the era of Jesus; a Jewish religious academy of antiquity; and both Jewish and Christian Bible translations, all of one accord on this prophecy:
Micah 5:2 ( 5:1 in Jewish Bibles):
But thou, Beth-lehem Ephrathah, which art little to be among the thousands of Judah, out of thee shall one come forth unto Me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old, from ancient days.– Jewish Publication Society
And thou, Bethleem, house of Ephratha, art few in number to be reckoned among the thousands of Juda; yet out of thee shall one come forth to me, to be a ruler of Israel; and his goings forth were from the beginning, even from eternity.– Septuagint LXX
But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, Yet out of you shall come forth to Me The One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, From everlasting.– New King James Version
Not appearing in either Christian or Jewish Bible translations is the word “Messiah.” That is because Mashiach, the word for Messiah, does not appear in the Hebrew text.
One exception is Targum Jonathan, the Aramaic Talmud translation once recited side-by-side with the actual Hebrew text to the Jewish synagogue congregations. Mashiach is used in the translation based on the context of the prophecy (as translated into English): 
“Out of thee Bethlehem shall Mashiach go forth before me, to exercise dominion over Israel. Whose name has been spoken of Old from the day of Eternity.”
Translators rely on context during the translation process, especially with ancient Hebrew. Who is the identity of the future Ruler of Israel to be sent by God “Whose name has been spoken of Old from the day of Eternity”? Answering a question with a question – is this a characteristic of a mortal?
Renowned Jewish sage Rabbi Rashi is greatly revered for his commentaries on the Talmud and its Mishnah. Rashi’s phrase-by-phrase breakdown of Micah 5:1 (5:2) is quoted from The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi Commentary: 
“And you, Bethlehem Ephrathah”: [Rashi:] whence David emanated, as it is stated (I Sam. 17:58): “The son of your bondsman, Jesse the Bethlehemite.” And Bethlehem is called Ephrath, as it is said (Gen. 48:7): “On the road to Ephrath, that is Bethlehem.”
“you should have been the lowest of the clans of Judah”: [Rashi:] You should have been the lowest of the clans of Judah because of the stigma of Ruth the Moabitess in you.
“from you shall emerge for Me”: [Rashi:] the Messiah, son of David, and so Scripture says (Ps. 118:22): “The stone the builders had rejected became a cornerstone.”
“and his origin is from of old”: [Rashi:] “Before the sun his name is Yinnon” (Ps. 72:17).
Rabbi Rashi said the Messiah would come from Bethlehem Ephrathah, the home town of Jesse, King David’s father. The Rabbi took the opportunity to reflect his distaste of Ruth, a Gentile from Bethlehem. Rashi identified the future ruler of Israel to be “the Messiah, Son of David” named “Yinnon,” a Hebrew epithet meaning “be continued.”
After the Magi appeared at King Herod’s palace in search of the newborn King of the Jews saying they had seen his star, Herod immediately consulted all the Jewish religious experts asking where Christos (Greek for Messiah) was to be born. The chief priests and scribes told the King of Micah’s prophecy saying the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem Ephrathah.
Herod not only believed the prophecy, he believed it had been fulfilled sending the Magi to Bethlehem to find the newborn King of the Jews. He believed it so much, according to Matthew, that when the Magi didn’t return to tell him where to find the child, Herod slaughtered the children 2 years and younger in the Bethlehem district in an attempt to eliminate the threat to his throne.
As a contemporary of the more famous prophet Isaiah, lesser known is Micah’s preceding judgment prophecies of utter destruction against Samaria and Jerusalem predicting they would be taken away by Babylon and the Temple would be destroyed. Corroborating his Bethlehem prophecy, he singled out 10 towns and cities by name, including Jerusalem, that would experience God’s wrath – Bethlehem was not one of them.
Bethlehem Ephrathah, instead, was to be an exception. After the judgement of Israel, God promised to restore Jerusalem and the Temple where the little town of Bethlehem would play a prominent role. It is in that context the very first word in the Hebrew text of the Micah 5:2 prophecy, is ‘attah, meaning “you.”
Micah exclaims “you, Bethlehem Ephrathah” emphasized as if pointing a finger at Bethlehem. He then sets the magnitude of his prophecy saying that, although insignificant in the land of Judah, from you a future Ruler of Israel shall come forth “Whose name has been spoken of Old from the day of Eternity.”
Micah’s Messiah requirement prophecy is used as a litmus test by Jews and Christians alike to rule in or out anyone thought to be the Messiah. Jesus of Nazareth was born in Bethlehem. No other person purporting to be the Messiah has been born in Bethlehem. What is the probability that Jesus is the fulfillment of Micah’s prophecy?
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
 Jewish Publication Society (JPS) translation. 1917. “Micah.” <http://www.breslov.com/bible/Micah5.htm#3>
 English Translation of the Greek Septuagint Bible. Trans. Brenton, Lancelot C. L. 1851. “Michaeas (Micah).” <http://www.ecmarsh.com/lxx/Michaeas/index.htm>
 Net.bible.org. “Micah 5:2.” <http://classic.net.bible.org/verse.php?book=Mic&chapter=5&verse=2>
 “Targum.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. <http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/14248-targum>Targum Jonathan to the Prophets. n.d. “The Historical Background of the Targm Jonathan,” #47, #79. <https://archive.org/stream/targumjonathant00churgoog/targumjonathant00churgoog_djvu.txt>
 Prasch, Jacob. “Jesus in the Talmud.” Moriel.org. 2015. <https://www.moriel.org/sermons-in-english/5952-jesus-in-the-talmud.html> “Prophecies of the Messiah – His Birthplace.” Israelite. 2012. <http://www.israelight.org.au/~israelig/?page_id=676>
Deem, Rich. “Jesus Christ – Messiah of the Rabbinical Writer.” 2011. <http://www.godandscience.org/apologetics/messiah.html> Book of Matthew Study. “Matthew 2:1-23.” Yasha Net Studies. 3 Mar. 2000. <http://www.yashanet.com/studies/matstudy/mat5.htm> Killian, Greg (Hillel ben David). “Bethlehem – Beit Lechem – The House of Bread.” Betemunah.org. n.d. <http://www.betemunah.org/bethlehem.html> “Targum.” Jewish Encyclopedia. 2011. “Historical Jewish Sources.” The Preterist Archive. “Overview: About Targums.” n.d. <http://www.preteristarchive.com/BibleStudies/JewishSources/Targums/index.html>
 Benner, Jeff A. “Introduction to the Hebrew Bible.” Ancient Hebrew Research Center. 2013. <http://www.ancient-hebrew.org/2_bible.html>
 Bolding and brackets added by author. The Complete Jewish Bible with Rashi’s Commentary. Micah – Chapter 5. http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/16191>
 Yinon (Yinnon).” eTeacherHebrew.com. 2014. <http://eteacherhebrew.com/Hebrew-Names/yinon-yinnon> Interlinear Bible. Psalms 72:17. Hebrew text. BibleHub.com. 2017. <http://biblehub.com/interlinear>
 CR Genesis 48:7.
 Matthew 2.
 Micah 1. Gath, Beth Leaphrah, Shaphir, Aaanan, Beth Ezel, Maroth, Jerusalem, Lachish, Achzib, and Mareshah.
 Net.bible.org. Micah 5:2, Hebrew text.