Are Today’s Gospels Authentic, the Same as the Originals?
Gospel manuscript evidence dates back to the lifetimes of the Disciples with a fragment of Matthew whereas the earliest nearly complete Gospel manuscripts date to about 300 years later. How can there be confidence today’sGospels are the sameas the originals?
Patristics is the science of comparing early Christian writings to Gospel manuscripts to help bridge the gap of the “dark period” – from the originals to the first complete manuscripts. Westcott and Hort, expert Bible textual critics, viewed patristics to be of “the highest degree exceptional” in their comparisons.
Writing about the teachings of Jesus in the form of letters, called “Epistles,” was a common means of written communication by the second and third generation disciples, known as the Ante-Nicene Fathers. Four – Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Polycarp, and Papias – were taught personally by the Apostles, the original Disciples of Jesus.
Within these Epistles appear quoted phrases and verses that correspond with Gospel manuscripts written after them. The premise of patristics is that quotes from the Epistles had to come from older, pre-existing Gospel sources. As such, these Epistles serve as “witnesses” that “attest” or “testify” to the content of older, now non-existent Gospel manuscripts, in some cases quite possibly the originals.
One, The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, was written in Rome to the church in Corinth, Greece, around 96 AD. The Epistle is named for Clement of Rome, the reputed author, who studied under the Apostle Paul and knew Luke, the presumed author of the Gospel bearing his name.
Another is The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians written in Smyrna, Turkey, to the church in Philippi, Greece. Named for its author, Polycarp, he was a disciple of the Apostle John, received instruction from additional Apostles, and met others who had witnessed Jesus. Date of authorship is unknown, but it had to be written before Polycarp’s martyrdom in the arena of Smyrna about 155 AD when he professed to have served his King for 86 years.
An example of how patristics work can be seen using the three verses of Luke 6:36-38 quoted in both the Epistles of Clement Corinthians and Polycarp Philippians whose authors were separated by time and hundreds of miles. Their quotes as compared with two modern Bible translations:
The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians 
“forgive, that it may be forgiven to you; as ye do, so shall it be done unto you;
as ye judge, so shall ye be judged; as ye are kind, so shall kindness be shown to you;
with what measure ye mete, with the same it shall be measured to you.”
Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians 
“Judge not, that ye be not judged;
forgive, and it shall be forgiven unto you;
be merciful, that ye may obtain mercy;
with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again…”
King James Version, Luke 6:36-38:
Be ye therefore merciful as your Father also is merciful, v36
Judge not and ye shall not be judged…v 37
…forgive and ye shall be forgiven.v37
For with the same measure that ye mete withal it shall be measured to you again.v38
New American Standard Bible: Luke 6:36-38:
Be merciful just as your Father is merciful…v36
Do not judge, and you will not be judged…v37
…pardon and you will be pardoned. v37
…For by your standard of measure it will be measured to you in return.v38
Attestations from these Corinthians and Philippians Epistles are not word perfect matches, but neither are the more modern KJV and NASB versions due to translator variations. Both Epistles referenced Luke to support the message of their letters – the quotes were not intended to be a transcription of Luke’s Gospel, yet they match very closely.
Treasure trove of patristic attestation is found in Adversus Haereses (Against Heresies) quoting from over 600 verses from all four Gospels and over 300 verses from other New Testament books. Its author, a disciple of Polycarp, was Irenaeus who in later years moved to Lyons, France.
Patristics has a secondary consequence – producing evidence that challenges the theory alleging the Gospels and Christianity evolved from legend over a long period of time. Intuitively, what are the odds both Epistles quoting Luke were accidentally consistent with each other? Or did these authors quote from the same pre-existing Gospel of Luke?
If the Gospels “evolved,” why is their content consistently the same from the beginning until centuries later? The answers can be revealing.
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